The Use of Force - Unit One | Power and War | Summary | Question-Answers

Summary, Word Meanings and Question Answers Of "The Use Of Force". "The Use Of Force" was written by William Carlos Williams. William Carlos Williams was an American poet, essayist, novelist and short story writer. 'The use of Force' is a story that presents a crucial problems-whether it is right to use Force for good purposes. The story centres around the conflict that arises during the doctor's action and the child's protest against the treatment. The internal conflict is in the doctor's mind-whether to treat the sick child by using force or to leave her free to die of illness.

Vocabulary For "The Use Of Force":

WordMeanings

apologetic
regretfully excusing an offence ( क्षमा प्रार्थी )
motioned
directed a person by sign or gesture ( ईशाराले देखायो )
eyeing me up and down
watching closely ( नियालेर नजिक बाट हेर्दै )
Fairly eating me up
clearing devouring me, or taking me all in ( प्रष्ट सँग निल्दै, बल्ड्याङ्रग्रे आँखाले हेर्दै )
heifer
a young female cow ( गाईको बाछी )
magnificent
splendid, wonderful ( भब्य )
flushed
blushed, become red ( रातो भएको )
profusion
abundance, extravagance, plentifulness ( प्रचुरता )
picture children
appealing children who photograph well ( राम्रो तस्वीर भएका आकर्षक बच्चाहरु )
photogravure section of the Sunday papers
a special part of source Sunday papers that include special photographs ( बिशेष खाले तस्वीर अङ्कित आईतबारे अखबारको अंश )
took a trial shot
made a guess ( अनुमान गर्यो )
diphtheria
a contagious disease in the throat ( घाँटीमा लाग्ने सम्पर्कबाट सर्ने रोग, भ्यागुते रोग )
coaxed
persuaded the child by flattery ( फुर्क्याएर बच्चा फर्कायो )
clawed instinctively
scratched suddenly in the manner of an animal or bird ( जनावर या चरोले जस्तो गरेर नङग्रायो )
turned themselves in side in embarrassment and apology
surpassed themselves in being embarrassed and in apologizing ( दिक्दारी मान्न क्षमायाचना गर्ने कुरामा धेरै नै अघि बढ्यो )
broke in
interrupted ( कुरा काट्यो, हस्तक्षप गर्यो )
throat culture
a specimen of bacteria in the throat area ( घाँटीको बिशेष परिक्षण )
admonished
warned ( चेतावनी  दियो )
savage brat
wild, untamed child ( अनियन्त्रित बच्चो )
contemptible
hateful ( घिन लाग्दो )
ensuing
following ( त्यसपछि भएको )
object, crushed, exhausted
miserable, defeated, tired ( दु:खित, पराजित, थकित )
insane fury
wild rage ( अनियन्त्रित क्रोध )
dread
fear ( डर, भय, त्राश )
agony
unbearable pain ( सहन नसकिने पिडा, बेदना )
wooden tongue depressor
a narrow flat instrument pressing down the tongue to examine the throat ( घाँटी जाँच्न प्रयोग गरिने एक औजार )
with clenched teeth
with teeth held tightly together ( दाँत किटेर )
desperately
hopelessly ( निराश भएर )
hold myself down
control myself ( आफैंलाई नियन्त्रण गर्न )
molars
serving to grind ( टोकेर टुक्र्याउने वा धुलो पार्ने दाँत )
splinters
pieces, fragments ( टुक्राहरू )
hysterical
emotional ( अति उत्तेजित )
desisted
ceased, stopped ( रोकियो )
had got beyond reason
had lost control of himself ( नियन्त्रण गुमायो )
operatives
forces to drive ( हाँक्ने शक्ति )
gagged
choked ( श्वास रोकियो )
valiantly
bravely ( बहादुरी पूर्बक )
escape just such an out come as this
to avoid having her secret discovered ( गोप्य कुरा पत्ता लगाउन बाट रोक्नु )

नेपालीमा सारांश (Translation In Nepali Of "The Use Of Force" :

ओल्सन बाहेक डाक्टरले उपचार गर्नुपर्ने बिरामी कोही थिएन । ओल्सनले उनलाई आफ्नी बिरामी छोरीको उपचार गर्न आउनु भनेका थिए । डाक्टर बिरामी भएको घर पुग्दा बिरामी बच्चीकी आमाले उनलाई बोलाएर भित्र लगिन् । विरामी बच्ची भान्सा कोठाको आफ्नो बाबुको काखमा थिई । विरामीको बाबुले उठेर डाक्टरलाई स्वागत गर्ने कोशिश गरे तर डाक्टरले उनलाई बसाए । डाक्टरले कोट फुकालेर यताउता हेर्न थाले । उनीहरुले निरास भएर अबिश्वासको भावले डाक्टरलाई हेरे ।

विरामी बच्चीले ठूला-ठूला आँखाले डाक्टरलाई हेरी । उ, पटक्कै चलिन । आकर्षक र अनौठो बच्ची थिई त्यो । अहिले ऊ छिटो-छिटो श्वास फेर्दै थिई । डाक्टरले थाहा पाए की उसलाई ३ दिन देखी ज्वरो आएको छ । त्यता वरिपरि विरामीहरुको संख्या धेरै थियो । डाक्टरले बच्चीको घाँटी दुखेको छ कि भनेर सोधे, उसका बाबु-आमाले एकै साथ् छैन भने । यो बच्ची पढ्ने बिधालयमा धेरै बिधार्थीहरु दिप्थोरिया रोग द्वारा सताइएका थिए । डाक्टरले विरामी बच्चीको शुरुको नामले उसलाई बोलाए । त्यस बच्चीको नाम माथिल्डा थियो । डाक्टरले उसलाई घाँटी हेर्न मुख खोल्नु भने तर उसले मानिन । माथिल्डाकी आमाले डाक्टरले चोट पुर्याउँदैनन् भनेर आश्वस्त पारिन् । यस शब्दले डाक्टरको चित्त दुख्यो । त्यस केटीले भने डाक्टरको आँखा झन्डै नङग्र्याई । उसले डाक्टरको चस्मा भान्सा कोठाको भूइंमा झारी दिई ।

माथिल्डाका आमा-बाबुले दिक्क माने । आमा चाहिंले त मठिल्दा लाई गाली गर्दै झांगल झुंगल पारेर हल्लाईन् । डाक्टरले चाहिं त्यस अटेर केटीलाई मुख खोलेर घाँटी देखाउन अह्राए साथै त्यसो नगरेमा डाक्टरले नै जबर्जस्ती उसको मुख खोलेर हेर्ने कुरा बताए । तर यसले माथिल्डालाई कुनै असर गरेन ।

विरामी बच्चीको व्यबहार र उसका आमा बाबुको क्रियाकलापले डाक्टरलाई बच्चीको माया र आमा बाबुको घृणा लाग्यो । त्यस बच्चीको बाबु आमा थाके, पराजित भए र हैरान भए । बाबुले सकेसम्म त गर्यो तर केहि सिप चलेन । डाक्टर सामु गम्भीर प्रश्न तेर्सियो-की त शक्ति प्रयोग गरेर बच्चीको मुख खोलेर घाँटी हेर्नु पर्ने भयो की त उसलाई डिप्थेरिया रोगका कारणले मर्न दिनु पर्यो । डाक्टरले विरामीलाई बचाउने निधो गरे । अनि उनले मुख उघारेर हेर्न औजार प्रयोग गरेर घाँटीको परिक्षण गर्ने कोशिश गर्न थाले । पहिले काठको पन्यु प्रयोग गरेर मुख उघार्न खोजे तर सकेनन् । बच्चीको मुखमा रगत आईसकेको थियो । डाक्टरले एउटा चम्चा मागेर उनको मुख खोल्न पुन: कोशिश गरे । एकातिर विरामी बच्चीलाई मर्न बाट जोगाउनु थियो भने अर्को तिर उनि बाट अरुलाई रोग सर्न नदिनु पनि थियो । डाक्टरको निमित्त यो सामाजिक आवस्यकता नै थियो । केहि बेर डाक्टरले सन्तुलन गुमाएर भए पनि आखिरमा बच्चीको मुख खोलेर परिक्षण गरि छाडे । बच्चीलाई डिप्थेरिय नै भएको ठहर गरियो । बच्चीले आफू पराजित भएको महसूस गरि । डाक्टरले आफ्नो कर्तव्य पुरा गरे ।

Summary in English Of "The Use Of Force":

There was no patient to the doctor except Olson, who had asked him to visit his sick daughter to treat her. When he reached the patient's house, the sick child's mother welcomed him to the kitchen where the sick child was on the lap of her father. The father tried to get up to greet the doctor, who let him sit down comfortably. The doctor took off his overcoat and looked around. The parents looked at him distrustfully.

The sick child looked at the doctor with her eyes wide open to show her protest but did not move at all. She was an attractive and strong child. Now she was breathing rapidly. The doctor knew that she had a high fever for three days. There were many sick persons around. The doctor asked if she had a soar throat. The parents replied together that she had not. There were many students suffering from diphtheria in her school. He called her by her first name, which was Mathilda. He told her to open her mouth to inspect her throat but she did not obey him. The mother assured that he would not hurt her. The doctor, however, did not like the mother's expression. The sick child nearly clawed the doctors eyes. His glasses dropped to the kitchen floor. Mathilda's parents were ashamed. They spoke the words of apology. The mother shook the sick child by her arm. The doctor now broke in. He said that he was to examine her throat anyway. Therefore, either the child had to open her mouth or he would have to open it for her.

She did not move at all. She began to breathe faster. Then the fight began. The doctor said that if the parents took the responsibility, he would not examine her throat. The father then tried his best to open her mouth but could not do it. The doctor told the father to put her in his lap and hold her wrists. Then the child began to scream. She said that they were killing her. The doctor grasped the child's head with his left hand and pressed the instrument between her teeth. He tried his best to examine the throat but he could not. The child broke his instrument instead. The doctor then asked for some kind of spoon to open her mouth, which was already bleeding. Her tongue was cut so she shrieked hysterically. The doctor was also furious. He could have torn the child apart. But he had a social duty to perform. He had to protect the child and protect the other also. Therefore, he finally used his force to examine her throat. He discovered that she had a sore throat for three days and struggling hard to keep her secret. Now she was truly furious and began to attack. She had only been defensive before. She tried to get off her father's lap and fly at the doctor while her eyes were full of tears of defeat.

Question-Answers Of "The Use Of Force":

(1). What is the nature of the conflict in the story ? ( कथामा द्वन्दको स्वभाव या प्रकृति के हो ? )
Answer: The conflict in this story is many-fold ( बहुपक्षीय ). Firstly, the sick child does not like her throat to be examined but the doctor has to do it anyway. So, there is a conflict between the child and the doctor. Secondly, the sick child struggles against her parent's effort to help the doctor to examine her throat. Here the conflict is between the child and the parents. Thirdly, the child's father does not like the expression of his wife concerning the doctor's effort to examine the child's throat. She often says that the doctor will not hurt her. This statement of the mother irritates ( रिस उठाउँछ, झ्वाँक चलाउँछ ) the doctor. So, there is the conflict between the child's mother and the doctor. Fourthly, the conflict in the story is internal. The doctor's mind is tormented ( दु:खित, सताईएको ) because he has to fulfill his duty as a doctor. He had to prevent the child from dying and also protect others from diphtheria because it was a veneral ( संक्रामक ) disease. In order to protect the child he has to use force to open her mouth. If he does not use his force, the sick child will die. Thus, the doctor's mind is full of conflict. This is the nature of conflict in the story.

(2). Why does the doctor respect the child but find the parents "contemptible" ? ( डाक्टर ले किन बच्चाको सम्मान गर्छन् तर बाबु आमालाई घृणा योग्य पाउँछन् ? )
Answer: The doctor respects the child because he knows the child psychology. In this story, the sick child is frightened by the idea of being hurt. She thinks the doctor might hurt her. Therefore, it is natural for her to keep her secret. Even though her parents ask her if she has sore throat, she replies that she has not. The doctor finds the parents contemptible because they do not use their common sense ( विवेक ) to observe the child's mouth. As parents they should be responsible and use their brain. But here, the doctor does not find the parents responsible. Moreover, the mother repeatedly says that the doctor is a nice man and he will not hurt her. This makes the doctor feel hurt.


(3). What does the story tell us about the use of force ? How is the doctor affected by resorting to the use of force ? How is the child affected by being forced to open her mouth against her will ? ( शक्तिको प्रयोगका बारेमा कथाले हामीलाई के भन्छ ? आखिरमा शक्तिको प्रयोग गर्न पुग्दा चिकित्सकलाई के असर  परेको छ ? )
Answer: In this story force is used as a useful means of doing something. The child is sick but she does not want to open her mouth and it is impossible to examine her throat without using force. So, the story says it is justifiable to use force if it is done for a good cause. The doctor is largely affected by the use of force. He is furious and he loses reasoning also. At this, he becomes hard, cruel, almost brutal ( पाशविक ). Eventually the doctor becomes successful. When he completes his mission, he is releaved ( हल्का ) but the child is badly affected by the use of force against her will. She tries her best to keep her secret but eventually she is overpowered ( पराजित ) by stronger force and her eyes are blinded by tears of defeat. Then the child, who had been defensive so far, turns to attack violently the doctor who comes to prevent him from dying.


(4). Describe the relationship of the parents to the child. ( बच्चाको बाबु आमा सँगको सम्बन्धको बर्णन गर्नुहोस् । )
Answer: The parents had the daughter who had been suffering from diphtheria for a few days. She had got sore throat but she did not like to reveal ( देखाउन ) this secret even to her parents. The parents also could not open her mouth to look at the throat. This shows that the child was not obedient to her parents. She had not been close to her parents. It seems that mother was responsible for not making her child responsive ( प्रतिक्रिया जनाउने, सहयोगी ) to others. If the parents had taught the child to be responsible, she would have opened her mouth to examine the throat. This is why the doctor loved the child but he found the parents contemptible. Thus, he finds that the parents do not have the cordial ( सुमधुर ) relationship with the child.


(5). Write a paragraph about the reaction of the child during the crisis. ( अफ्ठेरो बेलामा बच्चाले देखाएको प्रतिक्रिया बारे एक अनुच्छेद लेख्नुहोस् । )
Answer: The sick child struggled hard not to allow the doctor to inspect her throat. In order to do so, the doctor had to open her mouth forcibly by using tongue depressor and wooden spatula. But the child broke the wooden blade to pieces. The doctor then tried to open her mouth by using a spoon. The child's mouth was already bleeding. Her tongue was cut and she screamed wildly. At this, the doctor also got beyond reason. He wished he could have torn the child apart. Then finally he overpowered the child and opened her mouth forcibly to examine the throat. He discovered that she had sore throat. Thus, the doctor got victorious ( बिजयी ) but the child blinded her eyes with the tears of defeat.


(6). Do you think a doctor's use of force like this on a patient is justifiable ? Give reason for your answer. ( तपाईको विचारमा बच्चा माथि चिकित्सकको यस खालको शक्ति प्रयोग गर्नु उचित थियो त ? कारण दिनुहोस् । )
Answer: If the child and her parents had been responsible, the doctor could have easily examined her sore throat. He might have persuaded her to open her mouth. If the child's parents had helped him to open her mouth for him, he should not have used force to do it. But the doctor had to use force to save the child's life. As a doctor, he also had to protect others from the sick child because diphtheria was a veneral disease. He had a social duty to perform. Therefore, he decided to use force to open her mouth to examine her throat condition. It was necessary for the doctor to know what actually had happened to the child. Thus, it is justifiable to use force for a good cause. It us sometimes good to do bad thing if the consequences are right.


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