Physics
Grade/Class - XII/12
Subject Code - 102
Credit Hours - 5
Working hours - 160

Last Updated: June 21, 2020
New Curriculum and Syllabus of Physics Grade/Class XII/12 of the year 2076/2020.

Content Area: Mechanics

1. Rotational dynamics [7 Teaching hours]
1.1 Equation of angular motion, Relation between linear and angular kinematics
1.2 Kinetic energy of rotation of rigid body
1.3 Moment of inertia; Radius of gyration
1.4 Moment of inertia of a uniform rod
1.5 Torque and angular acceleration for a rigid body
1.6 Work and power in rotational motion
1.7 Angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum.

2. Periodic motion [6 Teaching hours]
2.1 Equation of simple harmonic motion (SHM)
2.2 Energy in SHM
2.3 Application of SHM: vertical oscillation of mass suspended from coiled spring
2.4 Angular SHM, simple pendulum
2.5 Oscillatory motion: Damped oscillation, Forced oscillation and resonance.
3. Fluid statics [9 Teaching hours]
3.1 Fluid statics: Pressure in a fluid; Buoyancy
3.2 Surface tension: Theory of surface tension; Surface energy
3.3 Angle of contact, capillarity and its applications
3.4 Fluid Dynamics: Newton’s formula for viscosity in a liquid; Coefficient of viscosity
3.5 Poiseuille’s formula and its application
3.6 Stokes law and its applications
3.7 Equation of continuity and its applications
3.8 Bernoulli’s equation and its applications.

Content Area: Heat and Thermodynamics

4. First Law of Thermodynamics [6 Teaching hours]
4.1 Thermodynamic systems
4.2 Work done during volume change
4.3 Heat and work; Internal energy and First law of thermodynamics
4.4 Thermodynamic processes: Adiabatic, isochoric, isothermal and isobaric
4.5 Heat capacities of an ideal gas at constant pressure and volume and relation between them
4.6 Isothermal and Adiabatic processes for an ideal gas.

5. Second Law of Thermodynamics [6 Teaching hours]
5.1 Thermodynamic systems and direction of thermodynamic processes
5.2 Second law of thermodynamics
5.3 Heat engines
5.4 Internal combustion engines: Otto cycle, Diesel cycle; Carnot cycle
5.5 Refrigerator
5.6 Entropy and disorder (introduction only)

Content Area: Wave and Optics

6. Wave motion [2 Teaching hours]
6.1 Progressive waves
6.2 Mathematical description of awave
6.3 Stationary waves
7. Mechanical waves [4 Teaching hours]
7.1 Speed of wave motion; Velocity of sound in solid and liquid
7.2 Velocity of sound in gas
7.3 Laplace’s correction
7.4 Effect of temperature, pressure, humidity on velocity of sound.

8. Wave in pipes and strings [4 Teaching hours]
8.1 Stationary waves in closed and open pipes
8.2 Harmonics and overtones in closed and open organ pipes
8.3 End correction in pipes
8.4 Velocity of transverse waves along a stretched string
8.5 Vibration of string and overtones
8.6 Laws of vibration of fixed string.

9. Acoustic phenomena [5 Teaching hours]
9.1 Sound waves: Pressure amplitude
9.2 Characteristics of sound: Intensity; loudness, quality and pitch
9.3 Doppler’s effect.

10. Nature and propagation of Light [3 Teaching hours]
10.1 Huygen’s principle
10.2 Reflection and Refraction according to wave theory
11. Interference [2 Teaching hours]
11.1 Phenomenon of Interferences: Coherent sources
11.2 Young’s double slit experiment.

12. Diffraction [3 Teaching hours]
12.1 Diffraction from a single slit
12.2 Diffraction pattern of image; Diffraction grating
12.3 Resolving power of optical instruments.

13. Polarization [3 Teaching hours]
13.1 Phenomenon of polarization
13.2 Brewster’s law; transverse nature of light
13.3 Polaroid.

Content Area: Electricity and Magnetism

14. Electrical circuits [6 Teaching hours]
14.1 Kirchhoff’s law
14.2 Wheatstone bridge circuit; Meter bridge
14.3 Potentiometer: Comparison of e.m.f., measurement of internal resistances of a cell
14.4 Super conductors; Perfect conductors
14.5 Conversion of galvanometer into voltmeter and ammeter; Ohmmeter
14.6 Joule’s law
15. Thermoelectric effects: [3 Teaching hours]
15.1 Seebeck effect; Thermocouples
15.2 Peltier effect: Variation of thermoelectric e.m.f. with temperature; Thermopile

16. Magnetic field [9 Teaching hours]
16.1 Magnetic field lines and magnetic flux; Oersted’s experiment
16.2 Force on moving charge; Force on a conductor
16.3 Force and Torque on rectangular coil, Moving coil galvanometer
16.4 Hall effect
16.5 Magnetic field of a moving charge
16.6 Biot and Savart law and its application to (i) a circular coil (ii) a long straight conductor (iii) a long solenoid
16.7 Ampere’s law and its applications to (i) a long straight conductor (ii) a straight solenoid (ii) a toroidal solenoid
16.8 Force between two parallel conductors carrying current- definition of ampere

17. Magnetic properties of materials: [5 Teaching hours]
17.1 Magnetic field lines and magnetic flux
17.2 Flux density in magnetic material; Relative permeability; Susceptibility
17.3 Hysteresis
17.4 Dia,-para- and ferro-magnetic materials.
18. Electromagnetic Induction: [6 Teaching hours]
18.1 Faraday’s laws; Induced electric fields
18.2 Lenz’s law, Motional electromotive force
18.3 A.C. generators; Eddy currents
18.4 Self-inductance and mutual inductance
18.5 Energy stored in an inductor
18.6 Transformer.

19. Alternating Currents [6 Teaching hours]
19.1 Peak and rms value of AC current and voltage
19.2 AC through a resistor, a capacitor and an inductor
19.3 Phasor diagram
19.4 Series circuits containing combination of resistance, capacitance and inductance
19.5 Series resonance, quality factor
19.6 Power in AC circuits: power factor

Content Area: Modern Physics

20. Electrons [4 Teaching hours]
20.1 Milikan’s oil drop experiment,
20.2 Motion of electron beam in electric and magnetic fields
20.3 Thomson’s experiment to determine specific charge of electrons
21. Photons [3 Teaching hours]
21.1 Quantum nature of radiation
21.2 Einstein’s photoelectric equation; Stopping potential
21.3 Measurement of Plank’s constant

22. Semiconductor devices [6 Teaching hours]
22.1 P-N Junction
22.2 Semiconductor diode: Characteristics in forward and reverse bias
22.3 Full wave rectification
22.4 Logic gates; NOT, OR, AND, NAND and NOR.

23. Quantization of energy [8 Teaching hours]
23.1 Bohr’s theory of hydrogen atom
23.2 Spectral series; Excitation and ionization potentials
23.3 Energy level; Emission and absorption spectra
23.4 De Broglie Theory; Duality
23.5 Uncertainly principle
23.6 X-rays: Nature and production; uses
23.7 X-rays diffraction, Bragg’s law.

24. Radioactivity and nuclear reaction [6 Teaching hours]
24.1 Alpha-particles; Beta-particles, Gamma rays
24.2 Laws of radioactive disintegration
24.3 Half-life, mean-life and decay constant
24.4 Geiger-Muller Tube
24.5 Carbon dating
24.6 Medical use of nuclear radiation and possible health hazard.
25. Recent trends in physics [6 Teaching hours]
Seismology:
25.1 Surface waves: Rayleigh and Love waves
Internal waves: S and P-waves
Wave patterns of Gorkha Earthquake 2015
25.2 Gravitational Wave
Nanotechnology
Higgs Boson

* Practical Courses [32 Hours]
The practical work that students do during their course is aimed at providing them learning opportunities to accomplish competency number 2 and 3 of the syllabus as well as reinforcing their learning of the theoretical subject content. This part of the syllabus focuses more on skill building than knowledge building. Students must be aware of the importance of precision, accuracy, significant figures, range and errors while collecting, processing, analyzing and communicating data. Likewise, graphical method of analysis and drawing conclusion should be encouraged wherever possible.

Students should

1. learn to use metre rule for measuring length, Vernier-calipers for measuring small thicknesses, internal and external diameters of cylindrical objects and depths of holes, spherometer for measuring radius of curvature of spherical surfaces and micrometer screw-gauge for measuring diameter of small spherical or cylindrical objects and very small thicknesses, traveling microscope with Vernier scale for measuring small distances, top-pan balance for measuring small masses, stop watch for measuring time interval, laboratory thermometer for measuring temperature, protractor for measuring angle), ammeter and milli-ammeter for measuring electric current and voltmeter for measuring electric potential difference.

2. learn to measure precisely up to the least count of the measuring instrument-

metre  rule – 0.001m or 1 mm
Vernier calipers - 0.1 mm
- 0.01 mm
micrometer screw gauge - 0.01 mm
stop watch - 0.01s
laboratory thermometer - 0.5oC
protractor - 1o
3. learn to repeat readings and take the average value

4. learn to draw a standard table, with appropriate heading and unit for every column for storing data

5. learn to plot a graph using standard format, draw suitable trend lines, determine gradient, intercepts and area and use them to draw appropriate conclusion

6. learn to estimate and handle uncertainties.

In each academic year, students should perform 10 experiments, either listed below or designed by teacher, so that no more than three experiments come from the same unit of this syllabus.

a) Practical Activities for Grade 12

I. Mechanics

1. Use of Simple pendulum for the determination of the value of ‘g’ in the laboratory by graphically analyzing the variation of period of oscillations with length of the pendulum.
2. Determination of the surface tension of water by capillary tube method by graphically analyzing the variation of by graphically analyzing the variation of height of the liquid against the diameter of capillary tube for five capillaries of different diameters dipped in water simultaneously.
3. Determination of the coefficient of viscosity of liquid by Stoke’s method by graphically analyzing the variation of time taken for six metal balls of different diameters to travel the same distance in the given liquid with respect to their diameters.

II. Wave and Optics

4. Determination of the wavelength of He-Ne laser light by passing a plane diffraction grating.
5. Determination of the frequency of A.C. Mains using sonometer and graphically analyzing the variation of the ratio of resonating lengths with respect to the frequency of tuning fork using tuning forks of different frequencies.
6. Determination of velocity of sound in air at NTP using resonance tube.

III. Electricity and magnetism

7. Use of potentiometer for the
a) Comparison of emf’s of two cells
b) Determination of the internal resistance of a cell

8. Study the variation or resistance of a thermistor with temperature.
1. Use of deflection magnetometer to determination of the pole strength and magnetic moment of a bar magnet
2. Determine the magnetic field strength of a bar magnet stuck on table by graphically analyzing the period of torsional motion of a freely suspended bar magnet and its distance from the near pole of the fixed magnet along its long axis.

IV. Modern Physics

11. Study the I-V characteristics of a semiconductor diode.

e) Sample project works for grade 12

1. Study the traffic noise level in your town using a sound pressure level (SPL) meter.
2. Design and construct a step-up transformer.
3. Construct a simple device to measure angle of contact of a liquid with a solid surface and also calculate the surface free energy of some hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces.
4. Calculate the surface free energy of some hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces.
5. Construct a simple DC motor using a disk type magnet and a battery.
6. Construct a model of AC generator/dynamo.
7. Construct a current balance to measure magnetic flux density of a U-shaped magnet.
8. Construction of a step down transformer attached with a full wave rectifier made from semiconductor diodes.

f) Some examples of innovative works for grade 12

1. Construct a thermocouple thermometer and use it to investigate how temperature of a Bunsen burner flame changes with the height of the flame from the top of the burner.
2. Study of the status of hydroelectricity in Nepal.
3. Study of application of laws and principle of physics in any indigenous technology.
4. Verify Joule’ law.

5. Investigation on Peltier effect.
6. History of space exploration
7. Study on history of nuclear power in Asia

* Learning Facilitation Method and Process

Students should be facilitated to learn rather than just accumulation of information. Teacher plays vital role for delivering subject matters although others' role is also important. Student centered teaching-learning process is highly emphasized. Students are supposed to adopt multiple pathway of learning, such as online search, field visit, library work, laboratory work, individual and group work, research work etc. with the support of teacher. Self-study by students is highly encouraged and learning should not be confined to the scope of curriculum. Teacher should keep in mind intra and inter-disciplinary approach to teaching and learning, as opposed to compartmentalization of knowledge. Supportive role of parents/guardians in creating conducive environment for promoting the spirit of inquiry and creativity in students' learning i anticipated.

During the delivery process of science teaching in grade 11 and 12, basically following three approaches will be adopted;

a. Conceptual/Theoritical:
Knowledge of content (fact,terminology,definitio ns,learning procedures
Understanding of content ( concept,ideas,theories,priciples), 3.5 credit hrs spent for understanding of content.
b. Practical/Appication/Experimental:
Lab. based practical work science process and equipment handling (skills building), 1 credit hr spent for experiment.

c. Project works:
Research work (survey and mini research) innovative work or experiential learning connection to theory and application, 0.5 credit hr spent in field work.

a) Conceptual/Theoretical Approach:

Possible theoretical methods of delivery may include the following;
 lecture
 interaction
 question answer
 demonstrations
 ICT based instructions
 cooperative learning
 group discussions (satellite learning group, peer group, small and large group)
 debate
 seminar presentation
 Journal publishing
 daily assignment

b) Practical/Application/Experimental approach:

Practical work is the integral part of the learning science. The process of lab based practical work comprises as;
 familiarity with objective of practical work
 familiarity with materials, chemicals, apparatus

 familiarity with lab process (safety, working modality etc.)
 conduction of practical work (systematically following the given instruction)
 analysis, interpretation and drawing conclusion

c) Project work Approach:

Project work is an integral part of the science learning. Students should be involved in project work to foster self-learning of students in the both theoretical and practical contents. Students will complete project work to have practical idea through learning by doing approach and able to connect the theory into the real world context. It is regarded as method/ process of learning rather than content itself. So use of project work method to facilitate any appropriate contents of this curriculum is highly encouraged.

In this approach student will conduct at least one research work, or an innovative work under the guidance of teacher, using the knowledge and skills learnt. It could include any of the followings;
(a) Mini research
(b) Survey
(c) Model construction
(d) Paper based work
(e) study of ethno-science

General process of research work embraces the following steps;
 Understanding the objective of the research
 Planning and designing
 Collecting information
 analysis and interpretation
 Reporting /communicating (presentation, via visual aids, written report, graphical etc.)
General process of innovative work embraces the following steps;
 identification of innovative task (either assigned by teacher or proposed by student)
 planning
 performing the task
 debate
 seminar presentation
 Journal publishing
 daily assignment

Students are free to choose any topic listed in this curriculum or a topic suggested by teacher provided that it is within the theoretical contents of the Curriculum. However, repetition of topic should be discouraged.

Learning process matrix

Knowledge and understanding
Scientific skills and process
Values, attitudes and application to daily life
a) Scientific phenomenon, facts, definition, principles, theory, concepts and new discoveries
a) Basic and integrated scientific process skills Process
a) Responsible
b) Scientific vocabulary, glossary and terminology
b) Investigation
b) Spending time for
investigation
c) Scientific tools, devises,
instruments apparatus
c) Creative thinking
d) Techniques of uses of
scientific instruments with safety
d) problem solving
e) Scientific and technological applications
Basic Science Process Skills includes,

1. Observing: using senses to gather information about an object or event. It is description of what was actually perceived.
2. Measuring: comparing unknown physical quantity with known quantity (standard unit) of same type.
3. Inferring: formulating assumptions or possible explanations based upon observations.
4. Classifying: grouping or ordering objects or events into categories based upon characteristics or defined criteria.
5. Predicting: guessing the most likely outcome of a future event based upon a pattern of evidence.
6. Communicating: using words, symbols, or graphics to describe an object, action or event.

Integrated Science Process Skills includes,

1. Formulating hypotheses: determination of the proposed solutions or expected outcomes for experiments. These proposed solutions to a problem must be testable.
2. Identifying of variables: Identification of the changeable factors (independent and dependent variables) that can affect an experiment.
3. Defining variables operationally: explaining how to measure a variable in an experiment.
4. Describing relationships between variables: explaining relationships between variables in an experiment such as between the independent and dependent variables.

5. Designing investigations: designing an experiment by identifying materials and describing appropriate steps in a procedure to test a hypothesis.
6. Experimenting: carrying out an experiment by carefully following directions of the procedure so the results can be verified by repeating the procedure several times.
7. Acquiring data: collecting qualitative and quantitative data as observations and measurements.
8. Organizing data in tables and graphs: presenting collected data in tables and graphs.
9. Analyzing investigations and their data: interpreting data, identifying errors, evaluating the hypothesis, formulating conclusions, and recommending further testing where necessary.
10. Understanding cause and effect relationships: understanding what caused what to happen and why.
11. Formulating models: recognizing patterns in data and making comparisons to familiar objects or ideas.

* Student Assessment

Evaluation is an integral part of learning process. Both formative and summative modes of evaluation are emphasized. Formative evaluation will be conducted so as to provide regular feedback for students, teachers and parents/guardians about how student learning is. Class tests, unit tests, oral question-answer, home assignment etc. are some ways of formative evaluation. 

There will be separate evaluation of theoretical and practical learning. Summative evaluation embraces theoretical examination, practical examination and evaluation of research work or innovative work.

(a) Internal Evaluation

Out of 100 full marks Internal evaluation covers 25 marks. Internal evaluation consists of Practical work (16 marks), (b) Marks from trimester examinations (6 marks), and (c) Classroom participation (3 marks)

 Practical Activities

Practical work and project work should be based on list of activities mentioned in this curriculum or designed by the teacher. Mark distribution for practical work and project work will be as follows:

S.N.
Criteria
Elaboration of Criteria
Marks
1
Laboratory experiment
Correctness of apparatus setup/preparation
2
Observation/Experimentation
2
Tabulation
1
Data Processing and Analysis
1
Conclusion (Value of constants or prediction with justification)
1
Handling of errors/precaution
1
2
Viva-voce
Understanding of objective of the experiment
1
Skills of the handling of apparatus in use
1
Overall impression
1
3
Practical work records and attendance
Records (number and quality)
2
4
Project work
Reports (background, objective, methodology, finding, conclusion
2
Presentation
1

TOTAL
16
Note:
(i) Practical examination will be conducted in the presence of internal and external supervisors. Evaluation of laboratory experiment will focus both the product of work and skills competencies of student in using apparatus.
(ii) Project work assessment is the internal assessment of reports and presentation of their project works either individually or group basis. In case of group presentation, every member of the group should submit a short reflection on the presented report in their own language. Records of project works must be attested by external supervisor.

⇴ Marks from trimester examinations
Total of 6 marks; 3 marks from each trimester.

⇴ Classroom participation (3 marks)
Classroom participation includes attendance (1) and participation in learning (2).

(b) External Evaluation
Out of 100 marks theoretical evaluation covers 75 marks. The tool for external evaluation of theoretical learning will be a written examination. Questions for the external examination will be based on the specification grid developed by Curriculum Development Centre. Examination question paper will be developed using various levels of revised Bloom's taxonomy including remembering level, understanding level, application level and higher ability (such as analyzing, evaluating, creating).

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First of all, thank you for taking the time to read my blog. It's much appreciated! If you would like to leave a comment, please do, I'd love to hear what you think!

Suggestions and/or questions are always welcome, either post them in the comment form or send me an email at drgurung82@gmail.com.

However, comments are always reviewed and it may take some time to appear. Always keep in mind "URL without nofollow tag" will consider as a spam.

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