Physics
Subject Code - 101
Credit Hours - 5
Working hours - 160
Last Updated: August 18, 2020
New Curriculum and Syllabus of Physics Grade/Class XI/11 of the year 2076/2020.

### 1. Physical Quantities [3 Teaching hours]

1.1 Demonstrate the meaning, importance and applications of precision in the measurements
1.2 Understand the meaning and importance of significant figures in measurements
1.3 Explain the meaning of dimensions of a physical quantity
1.4 Workout the dimensions of derived physical quantities applicable to this syllabus
1.5 Apply dimensional analysis method to check the homogeneity of physical equations

### 2. Vectors [4 Teaching hours]

2.1 Distinguish between scalar and vector quantities
2.2 Add or subtract coplanar vectors by drawing scale diagram (vector triangle, parallelogram or polygon method)

2.3 Understand the meaning and importance of unit vectors
2.4 Represent a vector as two perpendicular components
2.5 Resolve co-planer vectors using component method
2.6 Describe scalar and vector products
2.7 Understand the meaning and applications of scalar and vector product with examples
2.8 Solve related problems.

### 3. Kinematics [5 Teaching hours]

3.1 Define displacement, instantaneous velocity and acceleration with relevant examples
3.2 Explain and use the concept of relative velocity
3.3 Draw displacement-time and velocity-time graph to represent motion, and determine
velocity from the gradient of displacement-time graph, acceleration from the gradient of velocity-time graph and displacement from the area under a velocity-time graph
3.4 Establish equations for a uniformly accelerated motion in a straight line from graphical representation of such motion and use them to solve related numerical problems
3.5 Write the equations of motion under the action of gravity and solve numerical problem related to it
3.6 Understand projectile motion as motion due to a uniform velocity in one direction and a uniform acceleration in a perpendicular direction, derive the equations for various physical quantities (maximum height, time of flight, time taken to reach maximum height, horizontal range, resultant velocity) and use them to solve mathematical problems related to projectile motion

### 4. Dynamics [6 Teaching hours]

4.1 Define linear momentum, impulse, and establish the relation between them
4.2 Define and use force as rate of change of momentum
4.3 State and prove the principle of conservation of linear momentum using Newton’s second and Newton’s third of motion

4.4 Define and apply moment of a force and torque of a couple
4.5 State and apply the principle of moments
4.6 State and apply the conditions necessary for a particle to be in equilibrium
4.7 State and explain the laws of solid friction
4.8 Show the coefficient of friction is equal to the tangent of angle of repose and use the concept to solve problems.
4.9 Solve the numerical problem and conceptual question on dynamics

### 5. Work, energy and power: [6 Teaching hours]

5.1 Explain work done by a constant force and a variable force
5.2 State and prove work-energy theorem
5.3 Distinguish between kinetic energy and potential energy and establish their formulae
5.4 State and prove the principle of conservation of energy
5.5 Differentiate between conservative and non-conservative force
5.6 Differentiate between elastic and inelastic collision and hence explain the elastic collision in one dimension
5.7 Solve the numerical problems and conceptual questions regarding work, energy, power and collision

### 6. Circular motion [6 Teaching hours]

6.1 Define angular displacement, angular velocity and angular acceleration
6.2 Establish the relation between angular and linear velocity & acceleration
6.3 Define centripetal force
6.4 Derive the expression for centripetal acceleration and use it to solve problems related to centripetal force

6.5 Describe the motion in vertical circle, motion of vehicles on banked surface
6.6 Derive the period for conical pendulum
6.7 Solve the numerical problem and conceptual question on circular motion

### 7. Gravitation [10 Teaching hours]

7.1 Explain Newton’s law of gravitation
7.2 Define gravitational field strength
7.3 Define and derive formula of gravitational potential and gravitational potential energy
7.4 Describe the variation in value of ‘g’ due to altitude and depth
7.5 Define center of mass and center of gravity
7.6 Derive the formula for orbital velocity and time period of satellite
7.7 Define escape velocity and derive the expression of escape velocity
7.8 Find the potential and kinetic energy of the satellite
7.9 Define geostationary satellite and state the necessary conditions for it
7.10 Describe briefly the working principle of Global Position -System (GPS)
7.11 Solve the numerical problems and conceptual questions regarding related to the gravitation

### 8. Elasticity [5 Teaching hours]

8.1 State and explain Hooke’s law
8.2 Define the terms stress, strain, elasticity and plasticity
8.3 Define the types of elastic modulus such as young modulus, bulk modulus and shear modulus
8.4 Define Poisson’s ratio

8.5 Derive the expression for energy stored in a stretched wire
8.6 Solve the numerical problems and conceptual questions regarding elasticity

### Content Area: Heat and Thermodynamics

9. Heat and temperature [3 Teaching hours]
9.1 Explain the molecular concept of thermal energy, heat and temperature, and cause and direction of heat flow
9.2 Explain the meaning of thermal equilibrium and Zeroth law of thermodynamics.
9.3 Explain thermal equilibrium as a working principle of mercury thermometer.

### 10. Thermal Expansion [4 Teaching hours]

10.1 Explain some examples and applications of thermal expansion, and demonstrate it with simple experiments.
10.2 Explain linear, superficial, cubical expansion and define their corresponding coefficients with physical meaning.
10.3 Establish a relation between coefficients of thermal expansion.
10.4 Describe Pullinger’s method to determine coefficient of linear expansion.

10.5 Explain force set up due to expansion and contraction.
10.6 Explain differential expansion and its applications.
10.7 Explain the variation of density with temperature.
10.8 Explain real and apparent expansion of liquid appreciating the relation r = g +a.
10.9 Describe Dulong and Petit’s experiment to determine absolute expansivity of liquid.
10.10 Solve mathematical problems related to thermal expansion.

### 11. Quantity of Heat [6 Teaching hours]

11.1 Define heat capacity and specific heat capacity and explain application of high specific heat capacity of water and low specific heat capacity of cooking oil and massage oil
11.2 Describe Newton’s law of cooling with some suitable daily life examples.
11.3 Explain the principle of calorimetry and describe any one standard process of determining specific heat capacity of a solid
11.4 Explain the meaning of latent heat of substance appreciating the graph between heat and temperature and define specific latent heat of fusion and vaporization.
11.5 Describe any one standard method of measurement of specific latent heat of fusion and explain briefly the effect of external pressure on boiling and melting point.
11.6 Distinguish evaporation and boiling.
11.7 Define triple point.
11.8 Solve mathematical problems related to heat

### 12. Rate of heat flow [5 Teaching hours]

12.1 Explain the transfer of heat by conduction, convection and radiation with examples and state their applications in daily life.
12.2 Define temperature gradient and relate it with rate of heat transfer along a conductor.
12.3 Define coefficient of thermal conductivity and describe Searl’s method for its determination.
12.4 Relate coefficient of reflection (r), coefficient of transmission (t) and coefficient of absorption (r + a + t = 1).

12.5 Explain ideal radiator (e= 1, a =1) and black body radiation.
12.6 State and explain Stefan’s law of black body radiation using terms; emissive power and emissivity.
12.7 Describe idea to estimate apparent temperature of sun.
12.8 Solve mathematical problems related to thermal conduction and black body radiations.

### 13. Ideal gas [8 Teaching hours]

13.1 Relate pressure coefficient and volume coefficient of gas using Charles’s law and Boyle’s law.
13.2 Define absolute zero temperature with the support of P - V, V- T graph.
13.3 Combine Charles’s law and Boyle’s law to obtain ideal gas equation.
13.4 Explain molecules, inter molecular forces, moles and Avogadro’s number.
13.5 Explain the assumptions of kinetic – molecular model of an ideal gas.
13.6 Derive expression for pressure exerted by gas due to collisions with wall of the container appreciating the use of Newton’s law of motion.
13.7 Explain the root mean square speed of gas and its relationship with temperature and molecular mass.

13.8 Relate the pressure and kinetic energy.
13.9 Calculate the average translational kinetic energy of gas for 1 molecule and Avogadro’s number of molecules.
13.10 Solve mathematical problems related ideal gas.

### 14. Reflection at curved mirrors [2 Teaching hours]

14.1 State the relation between object distance, image distance and focal length of curved mirrors
14.2 State the relation between object size and image size
14.3 Know the difference between the real and virtual image in geometrical optics
14.4 Calculate the focal length of curved mirrors and its applications

### 15. Refraction at plane surfaces [4 Teaching hours]

15.1 Recall the laws of refraction
15.2 Understand the meaning of lateral shift
15.3 Understand the meaning of refractive index of a medium
15.4 Calculate refractive index of a medium using angle of incidence and angle of refraction
15.5 Learn the relation between the refractive indices
15.6 Know the meaning of total internal reflection and the condition for it

15.7 Understand critical angle and learn the applications of total internal reflection
15.8 Explain the working principle of optical fiber

### 16. Refraction through prisms: [3 Teaching hours]

16.1 Understand minimum deviation condition
16.2 Discuss relation between angle of prism, angle of minimum deviation and refractive index
16.3 Use above relations to find the values of refractive index of the prism
16.4 Understand deviation in small angle prism and learn its importance in real life

### 17. Lenses [3 Teaching hours]

17.1 State properties of Spherical lenses
17.2 State the relation between object distance, image distance and focal length of a convex lens
17.3 Define visual angle and angular magnification
17.4 Derive Lens maker’s formula and use it to find focal length

### 18. Dispersion [3 Teaching hours]

18.1 Understand pure spectrum
18.2 Learn the meaning of dispersive power
18.3 Discuss chromatic and spherical aberration
18.4 Discuss achromatism in lens and its applications

### 19. Electric charges [3 Teaching hours]

19.1 Understand the concept of electric charge and charge carriers
19.2 Understand the process of charging by friction and use the concept to explain related day to day observations

19.3 Understand that, for any point outside a spherical conductor, the charge on the sphere may be considered to act as a point charge at its centre
19.4 State Coulomb’s law
19.5 Recall and use 𝐹 = 􀯊􀯤 􀬸􀰗􀰌􀳚􀯥􀰮 for the force between two point charges in free space or air
19.6 Compute the magnitude and direction of the net force acting at a point due to multiple charges

### 20. Electric field: [3 Teaching hours]

20.1 Describe an electric field as a region in which an electric charge experiences a force
20.2 Define electric field strength as force per unit positive charge acting on a stationary point charge
20.3 Calculate forces on charges in uniform electric fields of known strength 20.4 Use 𝐸 = 􀯊
􀬸􀰗􀰌􀳚􀯥􀰮 strength of a point charge in free space or air
20.5 Illustrate graphically the changes in electric field strength with respect distance from a point charge
20.6 Represent an electric field by means of field lines
20.7 Describe the effect of a uniform electric field on the motion of charged particles
20.8 Understand the concept of electric flux of a surface
20.9 State Gauss law and apply it for a field of a charged sphere and for line charge
20.10 Understand that uniform field exists between charged parallel plates and sketch the field lines

### 21. Potential, potential difference and potential energy [4 Teaching hours]

21.1 Define potential at a point as the work done per unit positive charge in bringing a small test charge from infinity to the point
21.2 Use electron volt as a unit of electric potential energy
21.3 Recall and use 𝑉 = 􀯊 􀬸􀰗􀰌􀳚􀯥 for the potential in the field of a point charge
21.4 Illustrate graphically the variation in potential along a straight line from the source charge and understand that the field strength of the field at a point is equal to the negative of potential gradient at that point

21.5 Understand the concept of equipotential lines and surfaces and relate it to potential difference between two points
21.6 Recall and use 𝐸 = Δ􀯏 Δ􀯫 to calculate the field strength of the uniform field between charged parallel plates in terms of potential difference and separation

### 22. Capacitor [7 Teaching hours]

22.1 capacitance and capacitor
a. Show understanding of the uses of capacitors in simple electrical circuits
b. Define capacitance as the ratio of the change in an electric charge in a system to the corresponding change in its electric potential and associate it to the ability of a system to store charge
c. Use 𝐶 = 􀯊􀯏
d. Relate capacitance to the gradient of potential-charge graph
22.2 Parallel plate capacitor
a. Derive 𝐶 = 􀰌􀳚􀮺􀯗 , using Gauss law and 𝐶 = 􀯊􀯏 , for parallel plate capacitor
b. Explain the effect on the capacitance of parallel plate capacitor of changing the surface area and separation of the plates
c. Explain the effect of a dielectric in a parallel plate capacitor in
22.3 Combination of capacitors
a. Derive formula for combined capacitance for capacitors in series combinations
b. Solve problems related to capacitors in series combinations
c. Derive formula for combined capacitance for capacitors in parallel combinations
d. Solve problems related to capacitors in parallel combinations
22.4 Energy stored in a charged capacitor
a. Deduce, from the area under the potential-charge graph, the equations 𝐸 = 􀬵􀬶 𝑄𝑉and hence 𝐸 = 􀬵􀬶 𝐶𝑉􀬶 for the average electrical energy of charged capacitor
22.5 Effect of dielectric

a. Show understanding of a dielectric as a material that polarizes when subjected to electric field
b. Explain the effect of inserting dielectric between the plates of a parallel plate capacitor on its capacitance

### 23. DC Circuits [10 Teaching hours]

23.1 Electric Currents; Drift velocity and its relation with current
a. Understand the concept that potential difference between two points in a conductor makes the charge carriers drift
b. Define electric current as the rate of flow of positive charge, Q = It
c. Derive, using Q=It and the definition of average drift velocity, the expression I=nAvq where n is the number density of free charge carriers
23.2 Ohm’s law Ohm’s law; Electrical Resistance: resistivity and conductivity
a. Define and apply electric resistance as the ratio of potential difference to current
b. Define ohm , resistivity and conductivity
c. Use R = ρl /A for a conductor
d. Explain, using R = ρl /A, how changes in dimensions of a conducting wire works as a variable resistor
e. Show an understanding of the structure of strain gauge (pressure sensor) and relate change in pressure to change in in resistance of the gauge
f. Show an understanding of change of resistance with light intensity of a light-dependent resistor (the light sensor)
g. Show an understanding of change of resistance of n-type thermistor to change in temperature (electronic temperature sensor)
23.3 Current-voltage relations: ohmic and non-ohmic

a. Sketch and discuss the I–V characteristics of a metallic conductor at constant temperature, a
semiconductor diode and a filament lamp d) state Ohm’s law
b. State Ohm’s law and identify ohmic and non-ohmic resistors
23.4 Resistances in series and parallel
a. Derive, using laws of conservation of charge and conservation of energy, a formula for the combined resistance of two or more resistors in parallel
b. Solve problems using the formula for the combined resistance of two or more resistors in series
c. Derive, using laws of conservation of charge and conservation of energy, a formula for the combined resistance of two or more resistors in parallel
d. Solve problems using the formula for the combined resistance of two or more resistors in series and parallel to solve simple circuit problems
23.5 Potential divider
a. Understand the principle of a potential divider circuit as a source of variable p.d. and use it in simple circuits
b. Explain the use of sensors (thermistors, light-dependent resistors and strain gauges) in
potential divider circuit as a source of potential difference that is dependent on temperature, illumination and strain respectively
23.6 Electromotive force of a source, internal resistance
a. Define electromotive force (e.m.f.) in terms of the energy transferred by a source in driving unit charge round a complete circuit
b. Distinguish between e.m.f. and potential difference (p.d.) in terms of energy considerations
c. Understand the effects of the internal resistance of a source of e.m.f. on the terminal potential difference
23.7 Work and power in electrical circuit
a. Derive from the definition of V and I, the relation P=IV for power in electric circuit
b. Use P=IV
c. Derive P=I2R for power dissipated in a resistor of resistance R and use the formula for solving the problems of heating effects of electric current

### 24. Nuclear physics [6 Teaching hours]

24.1 Explain how nucleus was discovered
24.2 Convey the meaning of mass number, atomic number
24.3 Calculate the expression of nuclear density
24.4 Explain the existence of different isotopes of the same element
24.5 Describe main theme of Einstein’s mass energy relation and state the relation
24.6 Explain the meaning of mass defect and cause of it
24.7 Describe the terms creation and annihilation

24.8 Derive the relation of binding energy and binding energy per unit nucleon of different nuclei
24.9 Plot a graph between BE per nucleon and mass number of different nuclei
24.10 Define nuclear fusion and fission and explain the mechanism of energy release
24.11 Solve numerical problems related to nuclear physics

### 25. Solids [3 Teaching hours]

25.1 Distinguish between energy level and energy band along with the formation of energy band in solids
25.2 Differentiate metals, semiconductors, and conductors on the basis of energy band
25.3 Explain the meaning of intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors with examples
25.4 Explain how p and n type semiconductors are formed
25.5 Interpret unit related conceptual questions clearly

### 26. Recent Trends in Physics [6 Teaching hours]

26.1 Explain elementary particles and antiparticles
26.2 Classify the particles with examples
26.3 Name different quarks with their charges and symbols
26.4 Write quark combination of few mesons and baryons particles
26.5 Describe leptons with examples
26.6 Explain Big Bang and Hubble’s law and justify the expansion of the universe
26.7 Briefly describe dark matter, black hole and gravitational wave

### * Practical Courses [32 Hours]

The practical work that students do during their course is aimed at providing them learning opportunities to accomplish competency number 2 and 3 of the syllabus as well as reinforcing their learning of the theoretical subject content. This part of the syllabus focuses more on skill building than knowledge building. Students must be aware of the importance of precision, accuracy, significant figures, range and errors while collecting, processing, analyzing and communicating data. Likewise, graphical method of analysis and drawing conclusion should be encouraged wherever possible.

### Students should

1. learn to use metre rule for measuring length, Vernier-calipers for measuring small thicknesses, internal and external diameters of cylindrical objects and depths of holes, spherometer for measuring radius of curvature of spherical surfaces and micrometer screw-gauge for measuring diameter of small spherical or cylindrical objects and very small thicknesses, traveling microscope with Vernier scale for measuring small distances, top-pan balance for measuring small masses, stop watch for measuring time interval, laboratory thermometer for measuring temperature, protractor for measuring angle), ammeter and milli-ammeter for measuring electric current and voltmeter for measuring electric potential difference.

2. learn to measure precisely up to the least count of the measuring instrument-
metre rule – 0.001m or 1 mm
Vernier calipers - 0.1 mm- 0.01 mm
micrometer screw gauge - 0.01 mm
stop watch - 0.01s
laboratory thermometer - 0.5oC
protractor - 1o

3. learn to repeat readings and take the average value

4. learn to draw a standard table, with appropriate heading and unit for every column for storing data

5. learn to plot a graph using standard format, draw suitable trend lines, determine gradient, intercepts and area and use them to draw appropriate conclusion

6. learn to estimate and handle uncertainties.

In each academic year, students should perform 10 experiments, either listed below or designed by teacher, so that no more than three experiments come from the same unit of this syllabus.

### a) Practical Activities for Grade 11I. Mechanics

1. Verify the law of moments by graphically analyzing the relation between clockwise moment and anticlockwise moment on a half metre rule suspended at the cerntre by a string.
2. Determination of the coefficient of friction for the two surfaces by graphically analyzing how minimum force needed to set a trolley resting on plan horizontal surface to motion varies with its mass.
3. Determination of young modulus of elasticity of the material of a given wire by graphically analyzing the variation of tensile force with respect to extension produced by it.

II. Heat

4. Use of Pullinger’s apparatus for the Determination of the linear expansivity of a rod.
5. Use of Regnault’s apparatus to determination of the specific heat capacity of a solid by the method of mixture.

6. Determination of the thermal conductivity of a good conductor by Searle’s method.

III. Geometrical Optics

7. Use of rectangular glass slab to determine the thickness of the slab by graphically analyzing how lateral shift varies with the angle of incidence.
8. Use of Travelling Microscope for the determination of the refractive index of glass slab by graphically analyzing how apparent depth varies with the real depth for glass plates of different thicknesses.
9. Determination of the focal length of a concave mirror by graphically analyzing the variation of image distance with respect to object distance.

IV. Current electricity

10. Verification of Ohm’s law and determination of resistance of a thin-film resistor by graphical analysis of variation of electric current in the resistor with respect to potential difference across it.

11. Determination of resistivity of a metal wire by graphical analysis of variation of electric current through a metal wire against its length.
12. Investigation of I-V characteristics of a heating coil by graphically analyzing the variation of electric current though a light bulb with respect to the potential difference across it.

### b) Sample project works for grade 11

1. Study the variation in the range of a jet of water with angle of projection
2. Study the factors affecting the rate of loss of heat of a liquid
3. Study the nature and size of the image formed by a convex lens using a candle and a screen.
4. Study of uses of alternative energy sources in Nepal
5. Study of energy consumption patterns in the neighborhood.

6. Study of study of electricity consumption pattern in the neighborhood.
7. Study of application of laws and principle of physics in any indigenous technology.
8. Verification of the laws of solid friction.
9. Study the temperature dependence of refractive index of different liquids using a hollow prism and laser beam.
10. Study the frequency dependence of refractive index of glass using a glass prism and white light beam.

### c) Some examples of innovative works for grade 11

1. Construct a hygrometer using dry and wet bulb thermometers and use it to measure relative humidity of a given place.
2. Design and construct a system to demonstrate the phenomenon of total internal reflection (TIR) of a laser beam through a jet of water.
3. Construct a digital Newton meter using the concept of potential divider.

### * Learning Facilitation Method and Process

Students should be facilitated to learn rather than just accumulation of information. Teacher plays vital role for delivering subject matters although others' role is also important. Student centered teaching-learning process is highly emphasized. Students are supposed to adopt multiple pathway of learning, such as online search, field visit, library work, laboratory work, individual and group work, research work etc. with the support of teacher. Self-study by students is highly encouraged and learning should not be confined to the scope of curriculum. Teacher should keep in mind intra and inter-disciplinary approach to teaching and learning, as opposed to compartmentalization of knowledge. Supportive role of parents/guardians in creating conducive environment for promoting the spirit of inquiry and creativity in students' learning i anticipated.

During the delivery process of science teaching in grade 11 and 12, basically following three approaches will be adopted;

a. Conceptual/Theoritical:
Knowledge of content (fact,terminology,definitio ns,learning procedures
Understanding of content ( concept,ideas,theories,priciples), 3.5 credit hrs spent for understanding of content.

b. Practical/Appication/Experimental:
Lab. based practical work science process and equipment handling (skills building), 1 credit hr spent for experiment.
c. Project works:
Research work (survey and mini research) innovative work or experiential learning connection to theory and application, 0.5 credit hr spent in field work.

### a) Conceptual/Theoretical Approach:

Possible theoretical methods of delivery may include the following;
 lecture
 interaction
 demonstrations
 ICT based instructions
 cooperative learning
 group discussions (satellite learning group, peer group, small and large group)
 debate
 seminar presentation
 Journal publishing
 daily assignment

### b) Practical/Application/Experimental approach:

Practical work is the integral part of the learning science. The process of lab based practical work comprises as;
 familiarity with objective of practical work
 familiarity with materials, chemicals, apparatus

 familiarity with lab process (safety, working modality etc.)
 conduction of practical work (systematically following the given instruction)
 analysis, interpretation and drawing conclusion

### c) Project work Approach:

Project work is an integral part of the science learning. Students should be involved in project work to foster self-learning of students in the both theoretical and practical contents. Students will complete project work to have practical idea through learning by doing approach and able to connect the theory into the real world context. It is regarded as method/ process of learning rather than content itself. So use of project work method to facilitate any appropriate contents of this curriculum is highly encouraged.

In this approach student will conduct at least one research work, or an innovative work under the guidance of teacher, using the knowledge and skills learnt. It could include any of the followings;
(a) Mini research
(b) Survey
(c) Model construction
(d) Paper based work
(e) study of ethno-science

General process of research work embraces the following steps;
 Understanding the objective of the research
 Planning and designing
 Collecting information
 analysis and interpretation
 Reporting /communicating (presentation, via visual aids, written report, graphical etc.)
General process of innovative work embraces the following steps;
 identification of innovative task (either assigned by teacher or proposed by student)
 planning
 debate
 seminar presentation
 Journal publishing
 daily assignment

Students are free to choose any topic listed in this curriculum or a topic suggested by teacher provided that it is within the theoretical contents of the Curriculum. However, repetition of topic should be discouraged.

### * Learning process matrix

 Knowledge and understanding Scientific skills and process Values, attitudes and application to daily life a) Scientific phenomenon, facts, definition, principles, theory, concepts and new discoveries a) Basic and integrated scientific process skills Process a) Responsible b) Scientific vocabulary, glossary and terminology b) Investigation b) Spending time forinvestigation c) Scientific tools, devises,instruments apparatus c) Creative thinking d) Techniques of uses ofscientific instruments withsafety d) problem solving e) Scientific andtechnological applications

### Basic Science Process Skills includes,

1. Observing: using senses to gather information about an object or event. It is description of what was actually perceived.
2. Measuring: comparing unknown physical quantity with known quantity (standard unit) of same type.
3. Inferring: formulating assumptions or possible explanations based upon observations.
4. Classifying: grouping or ordering objects or events into categories based upon characteristics or defined criteria.
5. Predicting: guessing the most likely outcome of a future event based upon a pattern of evidence.
6. Communicating: using words, symbols, or graphics to describe an object, action or event.

### Integrated Science Process Skills includes,

1. Formulating hypotheses: determination of the proposed solutions or expected outcomes for experiments. These proposed solutions to a problem must be testable.
2. Identifying of variables: Identification of the changeable factors (independent and dependent variables) that can affect an experiment.
3. Defining variables operationally: explaining how to measure a variable in an experiment.
4. Describing relationships between variables: explaining relationships between variables in an experiment such as between the independent and dependent variables.
5. Designing investigations: designing an experiment by identifying materials and describing appropriate steps in a procedure to test a hypothesis.

6. Experimenting: carrying out an experiment by carefully following directions of the procedure so the results can be verified by repeating the procedure several times.
7. Acquiring data: collecting qualitative and quantitative data as observations and measurements.
8. Organizing data in tables and graphs: presenting collected data in tables and graphs.
9. Analyzing investigations and their data: interpreting data, identifying errors, evaluating the hypothesis, formulating conclusions, and recommending further testing where necessary.
10. Understanding cause and effect relationships: understanding what caused what to happen and why.
11. Formulating models: recognizing patterns in data and making comparisons to familiar objects or ideas.

### * Student Assessment

Evaluation is an integral part of learning process. Both formative and summative modes of evaluation are emphasized. Formative evaluation will be conducted so as to provide regular feedback for students, teachers and parents/guardians about how student learning is. Class tests, unit tests, oral question-answer, home assignment etc. are some ways of formative evaluation.

There will be separate evaluation of theoretical and practical learning. Summative evaluation embraces theoretical examination, practical examination and evaluation of research work or innovative work.

### (a) Internal Evaluation

Out of 100 full marks Internal evaluation covers 25 marks. Internal evaluation consists of Practical work (16 marks), (b) Marks from trimester examinations (6 marks), and (c) Classroom participation (3 marks)

⇴ Practical Activities
Practical work and project work should be based on list of activities mentioned in this curriculum or designed by the teacher. Mark distribution for practical work and project work will be as follows:

 S.N. Criteria Elaboration of Criteria Marks 1 Laboratory experiment Correctness of apparatus setup/preparation 2 Observation/Experimentation 2 Tabulation 1 Data Processing and Analysis 1 Conclusion (Value of constants or prediction with justification) 1 Handling of errors/precaution 1 2 Viva-voce Understanding of objective of the experiment 1 Skills of the handling of apparatus in use 1 Overall impression 1 3 Practical work records and attendance Records (number and quality) 2 4 Project work Reports (background, objective, methodology, finding, conclusion 2 Presentation 1 TOTAL 16
Note:
(i) Practical examination will be conducted in the presence of internal and external supervisors. Evaluation of laboratory experiment will focus both the product of work and skills competencies of student in using apparatus.
(ii) Project work assessment is the internal assessment of reports and presentation of their project works either individually or group basis. In case of group presentation, every member of the group should submit a short reflection on the presented report in their own language. Records of project works must be attested by external supervisor.

⇴ Marks from trimester examinations
Total of 6 marks; 3 marks from each trimester.

⇴ Classroom participation (3 marks)
Classroom participation includes attendance (1) and participation in learning (2).

### (b) External Evaluation

Out of 100 marks theoretical evaluation covers 75 marks. The tool for external evaluation of theoretical learning will be a written examination. Questions for the external examination will be based on the specification grid developed by Curriculum Development Centre. Examination question paper will be developed using various levels of revised Bloom's taxonomy including remembering level, understanding level, application level and higher ability (such as analyzing, evaluating, creating).