Sons And Lovers | Question and Answers | Class 11

Question and answers of the novel sons and lovers by d.h. lawrence.
DR Gurung
Question and Answers of Sons And Lovers | Class 11. 'Sons And Lovers' is written by famous novelist D.H.Lawrence. Sons and Lovers is an autobiographical novel which draws on Lawrence's childhood experiences. In the given extracts the family relationship is shown which is not sound. The son hates his father and father lives the life of an outsider in his own house. The children don't like father's behaviour because he is very cruel, obstinate and uncompromising. Although he is a hard working collie, he can't maintain the family relationship.
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Summary Of Sons And Lovers

Questions and Answers Of 'SONS AND LOVERS':

Question No. 1: As you read, look for the answers to the following. ( पढेपछि तलका प्रश्नहरु हेर्नुहोस् ):
a) Why is the father an outsider in the home ? ( बाबा किन घरमै पराई भएको छ ? )

The father is a very angry and unsocial person. He works in a coal mine and is completely indifferent to the family life. He doesn't consider family member's problem and cannot share the happiness with them. He is not responsible for the family members. So, everybody hates him. He lacks the virtues to be adjusted in family. So, he is an outsider in his own house.

b) How old is Paul ? ( पाउल कति वर्षको होला ? )
The exact age of Paul is not mentioned in the story but on the basis of his behaviour we can guess his age. He must be a teenager (about 15) because he has got a prize in children's paper. He is obstinate (जिद्दी) in his decision which is common character of teenagers.

c) What does Paul dislike most about his father ? (पाउल आफ्ना बाबुको के कुरा मन पराउँदैन ?)
His father has got nasty temper (अति रिसाहा). He eats his dinner in brutal manner and throws all the plates in a heap. He sleeps on the table and shouts at everyone who appears on his way. So, this bullying habit of his father is not liked by Paul.

d) Can you ever see a positive side of the father's nature ? (बाबुको सकारात्मक पक्ष कहिल्यै देख्नुहुन्छ ?)
We can't say that he is completely deserted person. He loves children inwardly but they can not talk to him because of his behaviour. He is very sincere, dedicated and skillful workman. His sincerity at his work is very positive virtue that we find in him.

e) Think of an outsider in your own family, or in a family you know well. What is his/her influence on family life ? (आफ्नै परिवारमा एकजना पराई सम्झनुस्। त्यसको प्रभाव पारिवारिक जीवनमा कस्तो पर्ला ?)
There is a family in my village. It is poor family and the father works in a factory. He has three sons and one daughter. The elder son is very unsocial person. He has became a great problem to that family. He asks for money with his father and if he is not given, he gets very angry. He throws the pots and plates all outside and beats his younger brothers and sister. Sometimes he threatens his father and mother, too. They are all frightened with him and no one speaks in front of him. The environment at home is always in tension. This situation has very adverse effect in family life. They can't share happiness and can't even think of peace in family.

f) Is it common at Paul's age for young people to feel they hate their fathers and mothers, or conversely have a very strong attachment to them ? (पाउलको उमेरको लक्का जवानले आफ्ना आमाबाबु प्रति त्यस्तो व्यवहार गर्नु ठीक होला ? अथवा यसको ठीक विपरित निकटता चाहिन्छ ?)
Paul's age is the age of storm and stress (आँधि र तुफानको). It is very difficult to handle. They want to enjoy complete freedom. If something intervenes (रोक्छ) their freedom, they resent (रिस देखाउँछ) violently. So, the tension arises in between parents and children at that age because parents want to control them. So it is common to hate the parents at Paul's age.

g) Have you ever felt strong dislike for a parent's behaviour or attitudes ? What attitudes does the son dislike in Cat Steven's song ? (तपाईले आफ्नो अभिभावक प्रति नराम्रो कहिल्यै सोच्नु भएको छ ? Cat Steven को गीतमा छोराले मन नपराएको कुरा के हो ?)
Yes, when I was in the last year of my high school life, we decided to go for tour. All friends were ready but I couldn't convince my parents. They didn't let me go saying that I am too child to go for a tour. My parent's that attitude disappointed me. I didn't speak with them for a weak but they never take their decision back.
In Cat Steven's song the controlling behaviour of the parents is not liked by the son.

h) What are the positive sides of your own nature, do you think, from the point of the view of other members of your family ? (तपाईलाई आफ्नो सकारात्मक कुरा के हो जस्तो लाग्छ। परिवारका अरु सदस्यका नजरमा ?)

No one is faultless in this world. Some people are virtuous than the other. My father says that I can easily mix up with my friends and the strangers. My friendly behaviour is liked by my friends and family members. I think this is my positive side. My friends tell me that I am very helpful, too. I can't neglect the sorrows of the people. These are my positive sides.


Discuss the following in groups of three or four and make notes on your conclusions. Then compare ideas. (तीन/चार जनाको समूहमा छलफल गरेर आफ्नो निचोड दिनुहोस् र अरुसँग तुलना गर्नुहोस्।)

a) The father is presented very unfavourably. Do we have any sympathy for him ? When, and how is it brought out ? (बाबु ज्यादै असहज ढङ्गले प्रस्तुत भएको छ। हाम्रो कुनै सहानुभूति जाला ? कसरी र कुन अवस्थामा ?)
The father is very rude and unfavourable in family. He cannot mix up with the family members and everybody hates him. Initially we cannot sympathize him but gradually our sympathy goes on him. He loves the children and wants to talk to them. This is his positive virtue. He is very doubtful and hardworking person and is delighted at work. He used to keep on mending shoes and trousers. These actions of the father can't be denied.

b) The first reference in the passage to Mr. Morel is to 'his father':what other words are used to refer him ? Why does Lawrence keep changing ? (प्यासेजमा Mr. Morel को पहिलो प्रसंग कसको बाबुलाई हो ? अरु कुन-कुन शब्दहरु प्रयोग भएका छन् ? किन Lawrence परिवर्तन भइरहेको होला ?)
The other words refer to him in the passage are "the main", "the collier", "the father", "your father Morel", etc. Different references are used by Lawrence to the same person. It means that a person has different identity or role in family. The people are referred according to the role they play in society. Mr. Morel also has different roles to play or work to perform.

c) Why do you think the father acts as he does ? Do you feel he realises what the others think of him ? (बाबुले आफुलाई जे मन लाग्यो, त्यहि किन गरेको होला ? अरुले के भन्ला भन्ने उसले महसुस गरेको छ ?)

The father regards himself as the superior person in family. He dominates all other members of family. As the tension between the father and other family members of family increases, he cannot find his own identity in society so he acts in his own. Perhaps he wants to be a close member of the house but he is not able to do so. He is not aware of what others think about his behaviour.

d) What do you imagine the relationship between Paul's mother and father is like ? (पाउलको बाबुआमाको सम्बन्ध कस्तो छ जस्तो लाग्छ ?)
The relationship between the father and mother is not sound. She always lives the life of fear. The communication is lacking between them. She tolerates each misbehaviour of uncompromising and brute husband calmly without any reaction.

e) Do you find the passage realistic, or exaggerated ? (पाठ वस्तुगत छ कि अलि बढाई चढाई गरिएको छ ?)
The passage is realistic. There is nothing exaggeration because it is based on real life experience. Only Mr. Morel is a person, who earns for the whole family. The whole day he is away from family and gets no time to mix up with family members. Thus there is a big tension in the family.

f) There are several possible "gaps" in communication in this family scene, any of which might help to explain how the situation arose. Which of the following do you think the most significant in the context ? (यो पारिवारिक चित्रमा धेरै असम्भव खाडलहरू छन्, ती मध्ये एउटा मात्र कारण केलाउँदा त्यो कसरी उत्पन्न भयो भनी व्याख्य गर्न सकिन्छ ? यस सवालमा दिएका मध्ये कुन चाहिँ महत्वपूर्ण देखिन्छन् ?)
- the generation gap (नयाँ-पुराना पुस्ताको अन्तर)
- inability to communicate because of different social background and working environments (विभिन्न सामाजिक पृष्ठभूमि र काम गर्ने वातावरणको भिन्नता)
- unwillingness to communicate (बोल्न अनिच्छा)
- shyness (लज्जापन)
- insecurity (असुरक्षा)
Discuss the relevance of each of these possibilities and any others you think are important. (यी र तपाईका सोचाइका सम्भावनाहरुको सान्दर्भिकता माथि छलफल गर्नुहोस्।)
The lack of communication in the family scene is due to the generation gap. The father and son belong to different generation where the values and norms of life differ. Son belongs to the new generation and loves freedom while the old generation believes at work. The son feels greater freedom at school where he reads, plays and writes with his friends but the father is a collie in coalmine. The life style and the point of the view are different which prevent communication.
The social background and the working environment are obviously different. The father works in a coalmine factory and his working environment is completely different to that of the other members of family.

The Son is not willing to communicate with his father. Mother asks the son to tel his father about the prize which he got in a competition. But he couldn't tell him and said that he would rather lose his prize than to tell his father. So, willingness to communicate is another reason for gap in the communication.
Paul, the son, is shy to talk to his father. Even if the father wants to talk to his children, he can't. Lastly, there is a great sense of insecurity. The fathers get drunk and behaves rudely. He throws the pots and eats his meal brutally. He sleeps on the table and shouts at anybody who is on his way. 

Look carefully at the way Lawrence constructs his paragraphs in relation to each other and discuss their effectiveness in relation to the theme. In particular, notice that: (लरेन्स्ले एउटा अनुच्छेदलाई अर्को सँग कसरी जोड्छन् र त्यसको प्रयोगले पाठको विषयवस्तुमा कसरी प्रभावकारिता थपेको छ ? छलफल गर्नुहोस्।)

- Three paragraphs begin with 'And' and one with 'Then'. (तीन वटा अनुच्छेद And र एउटा - Then बाट सुरु हुन्छन्।)
- Several paragraphs begin with the names of the characters or with a personal pronoun. (धेरै अनुच्छेदहरु पात्रको नाम बाट व्याक्तिवाचक सर्वनाम बाट सुरु भएका छन्।)
- All the paragraphs in the conversation between Paul and his father (Morel) are one-line, single-sentence paragraphs. (पाउल र उसको बाबुको बीचको वार्तालाप छोटा छोटा छन्।)
- The final paragraph of the extract is longer than all the others. (बरु सम्पूर्ण अनुच्छेद भन्दा अन्तिम अनुच्छेद लामो छ।)
Answer: The paragraphs are about family relation. In the family there is lack of proper communication among the members. The conjunctions "And" and "Then" that begin the paragraphs show the connection of events in two paragraphs. Several paragraphs begin with a personal pronoun or with the name of characters because the passage is about the family members. Mainly Paul, Mr. Morel, Mrs. Morel, she, he, etc. are repeated it means that they have major role in moving the narrative.
All the paragraphs in the conversation between Paul and his father (Morel) are one-line paragraphs. This shows that the relationship between the father and the son is not sound. There is a lack of smooth and warm communication. They can't express their feelings fully.
The final paragraph is the longer than all the others. It contrasts the situation and tone of above paragraphs. In the last paragraph the father is at work and he is happy. The children attend his work and he is relaxed and satisfied.

Basically, the past tense used in the extract has two meanings. One meaning is that of 'used to do', the other refers to events that occurred only one. (खासगरी पाठमा प्रयोग भएको भूत कालको दुई वटा अर्थ छन् - एउटा गर्ने गर्थ्यो भन्ने अर्थ छ भने अर्को एकपल्ट भयो भन्ने अर्थ छ।)

(a) Find where these different meanings occur and comment on the contrast between them. (यी फरक अर्थ कहाँ छन् पत्ता लगाएर फरक देखाउनुहोस्।)

The past tense used in the sense of 'used to do' occurs frequently in the passage. Paul hated, he ate, went to sleep, shut out, etc. are used in the first sense. "Paul won the prize" and "everybody was jubilant" refer to the events that occurred only once.

(b) What is the effect of the phrases: "sometimes Mrs. Morel would say .......... ? (कहिलेकाहीं श्रीमती मोरेल भन्छिन् - भन्ने फ्रेजको के अर्थ छ ?)
This phrase shows Mrs. Morel's effort to establish communication between the father and the son. She would say sometimes only, not always, because Mr. Morel would not always be in the mood to communicate.

(b) Compare Lawrence's style in describing Mr. Morel to Charles Dicken's style describing Mr. Gradgrind. (लारेन्सको Mr. Morel लाई र Dicken को Mr. Gradgrind लाई वर्णन गर्ने शैलीको तुलना गर्नुहोस्।)
D.H. Lawrence's style is straight forward. He describes the character directly without using any figure of speech such as similes and metaphors. But, Dicken's style is more figurative. He uses simile and metaphor to describe Mr. Gradgrind. For example "square wall of forehead", "firtrees hair", etc. are very strong metaphor used in the passage. D.H. Lawrence's style is more realistic and descriptive. He is very sarcastic towards the character. Dickens on the other hand ridicules his characters and wants his reader to laugh at him.
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