Curriculum of Grade 12-XII | Compulsory English | Subject Code:004 | 2076 | DOWNLOAD

New curriculum of grade-xii-12 compulsory english subject code 004 2076
DR Gurung
Compulsory English
Grade/Class - XII/12
Subject Code - 004
Credit Hour - 4
Annual working hour - 128

1. Introduction

English is a lingua franca and is an appropriate international language for Nepal to be connected with global community. It is not only the language of international communication but also a language of higher education, mass media, information and communication technology (ICT), business, tourism, science and medicine. In the context of Nepal, English is necessary for various purposes. To be specific, our learners need English to participate in classroom interactions; to study course materials; to read things for pleasure and general information; to gain access to the world body of knowledge; to read and enjoy a wide range of literary texts, to participate in international meetings, seminars and conferences; to communicate with foreigners in general; to enhance their career development, and many more. English is taught as a compulsory subject from grade one to the bachelors level.
Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MoEST) has approved the National Curriculum Framework (NCF), 2076 addressing the changed socio-political condition of the country and the current needs of the learners. This grade 11 and 12 English curriculum has been developed in line with the spirit of the new NCF. The present curriculum addresses all four language skills with prime focus on reading and writing skills. It focuses on the types of reading and writing skills that are necessary for the students in their real life. It also includes the language functions which the students need for their further studies and the world of work. A strong grammatical foundation is also given due consideration in this curriculum. This curriculum is based on the principle that learners learn language when they get sufficient opportunity to use it in appropriate contexts. Content should not be detached from the use of language. Content and language should be integrated while teaching. Therefore, the curriculum has focused not only on language and language functions, but also on a variety of fiction and non-fiction texts which provide a meaningful context for language learning. For some students, secondary education serves as a basis for preparation for the university education, whereas for some other students, it may be a preparation for entry into the world of work. This curriculum tries to address the linguistic requirements of both types of students.

This curriculum focuses on both the intensive reading of texts which is intended for language development in the learners and the extensive reading of texts which is intended for processing content and developing higher order reading and writing skills. Soft skills including critical thinking and creativity of the students have also been given due importance. For this purpose, a wide variety of texts have been included under various themes and topics. This curriculum includes level-wise competencies of students, grade-wise learning outcomes, scope and sequence of contents, learning facilitation process and evaluation process.

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2. Competencies

This curriculum of Grade 11 and 12 in English language aims at developing the following competencies in the learners:

1. Use both spoken and written English for general and academic purposes in a variety of personal, social and academic contexts.
2. Read a wide variety of texts for information and understanding.
3. Read a variety of literary texts for pleasure and appreciation.
4. Read, reflect and interpret a wide range of texts.
5. Critically analyze and evaluate ideas in a wide range of level appropriate texts.
6. Search, select and manage information from various textual and online sources.
7. Create a variety of writing for different purposes and audiences with appropriate content, style and accuracy.

8. Produce a variety of creative and critical writings.
9. Appreciate diverse cultures.
10. Listen and respond in English with accuracy and fluency.
11. Communicate clearly and effectively in a range of situations using verbal and non-verbal communication strategies.

3. Grade-wise Learning Outcomes

The learning outcomes in this curriculum are distributed between grade eleven and twelve based on their levels of difficulty. However, the same learning outcomes may be introduced in grade eleven and consolidated in grade twelve. Therefore, these may go in a sequence and will be addressed in the resource materials and pedagogy.

3.1 Listening

Learning Outcomes
Listening constructsGrade 12
1. Identify and Discriminate stress and intonation patterns.a) Identify the speaker's attitudes and feelings through their use of stress and intonation.
b) Identify the speaker's purpose by distinguishing tone and intonation patterns.
c) Identify the effects of suprasegmental features and phonological processes in a connected speech.
d) Identify the key words and phrases in the given text.
e) 1.5 Identify the differences between formal and informal English.
2. Listen to the spoken text and understand its gist and retrieve specific information from it.a) Identify the gist, main idea and supporting details of a listening text.
b) Retrieve specific information from spoken English, and take notes.
c) Compare and contrast information.
d) Distinguish between cause and effect.
e) Interpret information and auditory cues.
f) Show an understanding of the functions of a wide range of discourse markers.
3. Make inference while listening.a) Make predictions about the subsequent content, actions and events using prior knowledge, phonological clues and contextual clues.
b) Make inference about purpose, intentions, themes and message of the spoken text from prior knowledge and contextual clues.
4. Listen to the spoken text and critically analyse and evaluate the information in it.a) Separate facts from opinions in a spoken text.
b) Draw conclusions from main ideas, specific details, prior knowledge and contextual clues.
c) Identify different points of view and make judgment.
d) Make judgment on the relevance of spoken message.
e) Evaluate the content and organisation of presentations.
f) Form and interpret opinions about ideas presented in texts.
g) Understand and interpret the meaning of common and grade appropriate idiomatic expressions.
5. Listen to the spoken text and take note of important information.a) Listen to a variety of audio materials (e.g. lectures, conversations, personal accounts, narratives and explanations) and take notes of them.
b) Restate what has been heard.
6. Participate actively and effectively in an interaction.a) Participate as an active listener in an interaction and discussion.
b) Ask for clarification and elaboration.
c) Respond to the speaker with appropriate facial expressions and gestures.
d) Respect the age, gender, social position and cultural traditions of the speaker.
e) Collaborate with others in order to explore and discuss understanding of spoken texts.
7. Listen to instructions, directions and announcements and follow them.a) Show an understanding of complex directions and instructions.
b) Show an understanding of common public announcements e.g. at an airport, at a stadium, etc.
8. Gain knowledge and understanding of target culture (s) through listening.a) Demonstrate an understanding of the patterns of interactions from various English speaking cultures.
b) Analyse the verbal and non- verbal social conventions that characterize the English speaking cultures.
c) Show an understanding of verbal and non- verbal social conventions that characterize the English speaking culture.
d) Evaluate the practices and values of both national and international cultures.

3.2 Speaking

Learning Outcomes
Speaking constructsGrade 12
1. Participate effectively in interactions and conversations.a) Initiate, maintain and conclude an interaction using both verbal and non-verbal expressions and with confidence.
b) Take part in relatively long conversation with multiple speakers on subjects of common interest.
c) Speak fluently, accurately and effectively according to social norms and cultural values in different situations on a wide range of general, academic, vocational or leisure topics.
d) Understand and respond to what has been said by the other interlocutors in conversation.
e) Ask questions for clarification and understanding.
f) Respond to questions in a convincing way.
g) Respect age, gender, social position and cultural traditions of the listener.
h) Present ideas, opinions, experiences and arguments with confidence.
i) Use discourse markers to enable others to follow what is being said.
j) Respond with suggestions, feedback and different viewpoints.
k) Change the topic of an interaction as required.
l) Indicate understanding and express certainty or uncertainty.
m) Negotiate meaning in communication.
n) Make proper use of extra linguistic features such as facial expressions and gestures.
o) Use a wide range of discourse markers.
2. Participate effectively in an informal discussion.a) Convey message effectively using appropriate language functions and idiomatic expressions.
b) Comment and put forward a point of view clearly and evaluate alternative proposals.
c) Give opinions by providing relevant explanations, arguments and comments.
d) Comment on and judge another person's views and opinions with argument.
e) Be aware of social etiquette and apply in conversation.
f) Respect others' views and ideas.
3. Participate effectively in a formal discussion.a) Have a discussion on matters related to his/her field.
b) Ask, reformulate and paraphrase questions as required.
c) Present a point of view clearly and in a convincing way.
d) Present and respond to arguments convincingly.
e) Take part in both formal and informal debates on the issues of current topics and concerns.
f) Make critical remarks or express disagreement.
4. Give and take an interview.a) Actively participate in an interview both as a interviewer and as an interviewee.
b) Expand the points being discussed in a persuasive way.
c) Check and confirm information.
d) Ask questions and respond to them properly.
5. Use telecommunications effectively.a) Use telecommunications such as telephone, Skype and Viber effectively for personal purposes.
b) Maintain appropriate etiquette and ethics of telecommunications.
6. Narrate a sequence of events or process.a) Narrate a sequence of events or processes using appropriate structures and vocabulary.
7. Use supra-segmental features like stress, tone and intonation
for expressing a range of meanings and emotions.
a) Speak fluently and accurately with acceptable pronunciation, stress and intonation patterns.
b) Produce utterances with appropriate features of connected speech such as assimilation and elision.
8. Make effective presentations.a) Generate ideas and make presentations appropriate to the purpose, audience, time and style.
b) Choose appropriate expressions and registers according to the context/field.
c) Use appropriate discourse markers.
d) Maintain appropriate posture and eye contact.
e) Use effective presentation skills.
9. Describe, people, objects, events, etc.a) Describe people, objects, events, etc. using appropriate structures and vocabulary.
10. Seek and provide a wide variety of information.a) Use a range of question forms for seeking and confirming required information.
b) Give detailed information on different topics.
11. Speak with critical analysis and evaluation.a) Express personal opinions to clarify the points expressed.
b) Present reasons and examples from different sources such as reviews of books, plays and interviews to defend opinions and judgments.
12. Understand and demonstrate inter-cultural understanding.a) Express one’s own cultural values and practices and compare with it that of others.
b) Express tolerance and respect for the cultural practices of other people.

3.3 Reading

Learning Outcomes
Reading constructsGrade 12
1. Read the texts intensively for information and understanding.a) Scan the text and retrieve specific information from it.
b) Skim the text and get its main idea/theme.
c) Distinguish between cause and effect and fact and opinions.
d) Compare and contrast ideas.
e) Identify different points of view.
f) Find out main ideas and supporting details.
g) Deduce the meanings of unfamiliar words and phrases in a given context.
h) Read the text and identify the order of events.
i) Identify explicit as well as implicit information.
j) Read and interpret the graphic organizers (e.g. Venn diagram, time line, semantic webs, etc.) given in the text to facilitate understanding of grade appropriate reading texts.
k) Follow the pattern of arguments with the help of the clues available in the text.
2. Read a variety of literary texts for pleasure, appreciation and interpretation.a) Read and interpret literary texts (e.g. short stories, essays, poems and dramas) from a wide variety of authors, subjects and genres.
b) Read and respond to literary works that represent a range of social, historical and cultural perspectives.
c) Interpret multiple levels of meaning such as literal meaning, contextual meaning, figurative meaning and intended meaning in literary texts.
d) Analyse and evaluate fiction and non-fiction including the effect of diction and figurative language.
e) Analyse special features of languages that distinguish literary texts from nonliterary ones.
f) Appreciate literary texts of appropriate level.
g) Determine the themes of literary texts.
h) Describe the characters of the literary texts.
3. Read the texts and critically analyse, interpret and evaluate the information.a) Determine the writer's attitude, perspectives, purposes and intended meaning.
b) Identify the particular kind of language used in a particular text.
c) Analyse and synthesize information from different sources by making connections and showing relationships with other texts, ideas and subjects.
d) Form a variety of questions at different levels about the text.
e) Read, review and present a critical response to a text.
f) Express opinions and make judgments about ideas, information, experiences and issues presented in literary and factual texts.
g) Arrive at conclusion and comment on a given text.
h) Summarise the texts.
4. Read the texts closely and understand the structure and organization of the text.a) Identify the structure and organization of paragraphs and longer texts by developing an awareness of cohesive devices.
b) Analyse the organizational patterns of a text (such as chronological, cause-effect, problem-solution and reason-conclusion).
c) Identify cohesive devices and their referents.
d) Identify the discourse markers and their functions in the texts.
e) Compare the structure of different types of text organization.
5. Read the texts and predict the content and make inference.a) Read the title and predict the content of the text.
b) Make predictions about the content of a text while reading based on contextual clues, text features, background knowledge, patterns of relationship of ideas, etc.
c) Make predictions about upcoming events in the narrative texts.
d) Make inferences from contextual information, writer's viewpoints, implied information, etc.
e) Use knowledge of the world or background knowledge while reading.
6. Read the texts and take notes.a) Make notes by reading various resources.
b) Read a text and make notes covering the key points.
c) Organise the notes and write on what has been read.
7. Read and interpret the Para-orthographic texts.a) Interpret and integrate information presented in diagrammatic forms (charts, graphs, tables, maps etc.)
b) Paraphrase information or ideas of the texts.
8. Read texts and deduce the meaning of unfamiliar lexical items from the context.a) Deduce the meaning of unfamiliar lexical items on the basis of contextual, syntactic and semantic clues.
9. Use an authentic English dictionary, thesaurus, encyclopedia, and academic reference material.a) Use an authentic English dictionary, thesaurus, encyclopedia, and academic reference materials.
10. Read and identify the practices and values of national and target cultures.a) Read and identify the practices and values of national and target cultures.
b) Read a variety of texts from both national and international cultures for information and understanding.
c) Read and compare social, democratic, political and economic issues in both national and international cultures.
d) Read expository texts on issues affecting social, political, economic and cultural aspects in a given society.

3.4 Writing

Learning Outcomes
Writing constructsGrade 12
1. Compose well-formed paragraphs.a) Compose well-formed paragraphs including the appropriate topic sentence, supporting details and a concluding sentence.
2. Write different kinds of letters and emails with appropriate format and layout.a) Write different types of formal letters such as letters to the editors, complain letters, job application letter, and business letters.
b) Write emails.
c) Prepare curriculum vitae (CV) with appropriate format and layout.
d) Create blogs for expression.
3. Write well organised essays on the given topics and the topics of own interest.a) Write well organized descriptive, narrative, argumentative and expository essays on the given topics and the topics of interest.
b) Edit the written products.
4. Write news articles on current issues.a) Write articles on current issues using appropriate forms and styles.
5. Write formal reports in an appropriate style and format.a) Write study reports based on project works or miniresearches in an appropriate form and format.
6. Narrate a sequence of events and personal experiences.a) Narrate an event in a chronological order.
b) Narrate a personal experience appropriately.
c) Write biographies of famous national and international people.
d) Write a travelogue/memoire.
7. Describe a person or event appropriately.a) Describe a person or event using appropriate structures and vocabularies.
8. Summarise a text.a) Summarise a text into a short form condensing the information.
9. Write a character sketch.a) Write a character sketch of the characters in a text with sufficient arguments.
10. Write a book/film review.a) Write a critical review of a book/film.
11. Transfer Information from tables, graphs and charts to prose and vice versa.a) Transfer information from tables, graphs and charts to prose and vice versa.
b) Describe and interpret tables, charts and graphs clearly.
12. Prepare Communiqué and press release.a) Prepare a press release of an organisation.
13. Use the mechanics of writing properly.a) Write a variety of text types using spelling, punctuation, capitalisation, contractions, abbreviations, acronyms, numbers and numerals properly.
14. Use various strategies for generating and organising ideas for writing.a) Use writing strategies such as brainstorming, making mind maps and spider grams for generating ideas.
b) Gather required information for writing from various printed and online sources.
c) Draft interview questions to collect information.
d) Take notes while reading or interviewing and use the notes for writing.
e) Use a range of organisational strategies such as clustering, webbing, and mapping to present information.
f) Critically analyse the sample writings to find out their structure and styles.
15. Apply process approach to writing for producing a variety of creative writings.a) Apply the stages of process approach (i.e. planning, making an outline, preparing the first draft and revising, editing and producing the final draft) for creating a variety of creative writings such as essays, personal experiences and articles.
16. Use an authentic English dictionary, thesaurus, encyclopedia, and academic reference material.a) Use an authentic English dictionary, thesaurus, encyclopedia, and academic reference materials for drafting, revising and editing their writing.
b) Develop personal dictionary.

Self-exploration and self-expression/creative writing should be dealt with as an inherent part while interacting with texts.

4. Scope and Sequence

4.1 Reading

The content of reading section is divided into two parts: Part I and Part II. Part I includes a wide variety of contemporary issue-based thematic texts intended for the practice of (a) intensive reading (b) grammar (c) vocabulary (d) listening and speaking (e) writing. Part II is built on the successful exposition of Part I. Part II includes literary genre-based selected texts of different types for reading for pleasure, for both intensive and extensive purposes so as to enable the learners to discern different aspects of literary texts and practise creative writings, which involves expression of imagination.

Part I (Outlines for the selection of texts)

There will be a wide variety of texts on different issues- both local and global of mainly contemporary concerns, which include gender issues, diaspora, science and technology, depletion of natural resources, etc. There will be maximum 21 reading texts of moderate length not exceeding 2000 words and technical terms at each grade. The texts should be taken from various thematic areas that have been proposed below. Around each selected text, specially tailored exercises will be developed for supporting the learners' engagement with the texts.

S.N. Thematic Areas Possible Topics
1 Education and Humanity ethics, human values, moral values, education, spirituality, animal rights, patriotism, responsibility of citizens
2 Health, sports and adventure yoga, travelogue, illness, disease, diet, nutrition, epidemics, hygiene, mental health, physical exercise, traditional and alternative medicine, meditation
3 Media and society change in communication and pace of life, advertising, bias in media, the Internet, radio and television, telephone, press
4 History and culture identity, language, ethnicity, ethnic groups in Nepal, folk literature, folk songs, folk culture/children's literature diaspora, ethics, cultural diversity, beliefs, values and norms, etiquette, historical events, national customs
5 Ecology and development global warming, deforestation, diversity, sustainable development, population, agronomy, forestry, wildlife, weather, ecosystem, food and water, the effect of man on nature, the environment, natural disaster
6 Science and technology ethics and science, impact of ICT on society, entertainment, renewable energy
7 Globalisation and economy international economy, migration, poverty and famine, global citizenship
8 Humour and satire humour, satire
9 Democracy and human rights democracy, human rights, gender, law and justice, legal awareness, children's rights, women's rights, rights of senior citizens, non-violence, charity
10 Home life, family and social relationships celebrations and social events, friendship, work, family, social acceptance, sex education
11 Arts, music and creation painting, arts, music, creation
12 Fantasy fantasy, imagination
13 Career and entrepreneurship jobs, career, entrepreneurship, problems of unemployment
14 Power and politics power, politics, struggle, conflict
15 War and peace war, peace
16 Critical thinking critical thinking, divergent thinking, logical thinking

Possible text types for part I
A wide variety of texts will be covered for reading purposes. Reading texts for part I will cover the
following types:
⇲ interviews
⇲ book/film reviews
⇲ news reports and articles
⇲ literary writings
⇲ reports
⇲ academic publications
⇲ letters
⇲ essays
⇲ news articles
⇲ biographies/auto-biographies
⇲ product guides
⇲ poems
⇲ blogs
⇲ brochures
⇲ emails
⇲ travelogues/memoire

Part II (Outline for the selection of reading texts)

As mentioned before, this part will consist of different types of creative works that involve the
expression of imagination and art so that the students can perceive how language functions
differently. These are higher functions. This section will expose the students to a different world of
imagination and art. This will encourage them to read more, think more and express with
individual artistry. There lies infinite possibility of growing independently. In this part, there will
be maximum 20 reading texts of moderate length at each grade.
The genres that will be included in this part along with the number of texts of each genre is given

S.N. Genres Number of texts to be included
1 Short stories 7
2 Poems 5
3 Essays 5
4 One act plays 3
Total 20

Contents in the Book: Class 12 Compulsory English according to the New Curriculum.

Section I: Language Development

S.N. Unit
1 Critical Thinking
2 Family
3 Sports
4 Technology
5 Education
6 Money and Economy
7 Humour
8 Human Culture
9 Ecology and Environment
10 Career Opportunities
11 Hobbies
12 Animal World
13 History
14 Human Rights
15 Leisure and Entertainment
16 Fantasy
17 War and Peace
18 Music and Creation
19 Migration and Diaspora
20 Power and Politics

Section Two: Literature

Unit One: Short Stories

S.N. Unit
1 Neighbours by Tim Winton
2 A Respectable Woman by Kate Chopin
3 A Devoted Son
4 The Treasure in the Forest
5 My Old Home
6 The Half-closed Eyes of the Buddha and the Slowly Sinking Sun
7 A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings

Unit Two: Poems

S.N. Unit
1 A Day
2 Every Morning I Wake
3 I Was My Own Route
4 The Awakening Age
5 Soft Storm

Unit Three: Essays

S.N. Unit
1 On Libraries
2 Marriage as a Social Institution
3 Knowledge and Wisdom
4 Humility
5 Human Rights and the Age of Inequality

Unit Four: One-act Plays

S.N. Unit
1 A Matter for Husband
2 Facing Death
3 The Bull

Based on the above genres, different types of reading and writing tasks should be developed so
that the students can think more independently, work creatively and develop a good foundation for
the university level education.
The tasks incorporated in this part will focus on:
⇲ glossary
⇲ literary devices used in the texts
⇲ comprehension questions (short and long: literature-based reading, reading between the lines, appreciation of texts, interpretation of texts)
⇲ writing a summary
⇲ describing the character
⇲ comparing and contrasting
⇲ critical and creative writing

4.2 Writing

S.N. Grade 12
1 Paragraphs
2 Formal letters (letters to the editors, job, application, business letters)
3 Curriculum vitae
4 Essays (descriptive, narrative, argumentative and expository)
5 News articles
6 Formal reports based on project works or mini-research
7 Narratives (personal experiences, stories, events, travelogues, memoire)
8 Descriptions (persons, events)
9 Summaries
10 Character sketch
11 Book/film review
12 Transferring information from paraorthographic texts
13 Press release
14 Mechanics of writing
15 Writing strategies
16 Process approach to writing

4.3 Listening and speaking

As far as possible listening and speaking skills will be practised not in isolation but in the context of reading texts in an integrated way. Listening texts will cover the following types in both grades:
⇲ Lectures
⇲ Talks
⇲ Presentations
⇲ Conversations
⇲ Personal accounts (e.g. oral anecdotes, past experiences, etc.)
⇲ Interviews
⇲ Short discussions

⇲ Narratives (e.g. radio dramas)
⇲ Procedures (e.g. instructions and directions)
⇲ Factual accounts (news reports, eye witness accounts)
⇲ Explanations (e.g. how an engine works)
⇲ Expositions (debates, speech, advertisements)
⇲ Public announcements
⇲ Weather forecast

Speaking skill will be linked with the prescribed language functions. The prescribed language functions will be included in the tasks and topics for speaking. Speaking tasks and topics should be linked directly to the reading texts. Speaking tasks will cover the following main areas in both grades:

⇲ conversations/interactions
⇲ formal and informal discussions
⇲ interviews
⇲ telecommunications
⇲ narrating
⇲ making presentations
⇲ describing

4.4. Language functions

The language functions prescribed in this curriculum should be the basis developing tasks for listening and speaking, and the grammar should be linked to the language functions.

S.N. Grade 12
1 Expressing feelings, emotions and attitudes
2 Expressing certainty
3 Expressing indifference
4 Making comparisons and contrasts
5 Arguing/defending a point
6 Responding to counter arguments
7 Expressing disappointment
8 Clarifying
9 Describing processes
10 Predicting
11 Expressing degrees of certainty
12 Expressing necessity
13 Speculating
14 Giving reasons
15 Denying
16 Complaining/criticizing
17 Reminding
18 Summarizing
19 Narrating past events, actions and experiences
20 Reporting
21 Announcing

4. 5. Grammar

The grammar part of the curriculum will include the following topics:
a. Adjectives and adverbs
b. Concord/subject verb agreement
c. Prepositions
d. Modal auxiliaries
e. Tense and aspects

f. Infinitives and gerunds
g. Conjunctions,
h. Relative clause
i. Voice
j. Reported speech
The grammar should not be taught separately. It should be dealt with in the texts as far as possible.

4.6. Sounds, vocabulary and dictionary use

a. Sound system of English
- Consonants
- Vowels
b. Vocabulary study-word formation
- Stem/root - Suffixes
- Prefixes - Derivation
- Inflexion - Synonyms/antonyms
- Parts of speech - Idioms and phrases
- Nouns-number - Verb conjugation
- Spelling - Punctuation
c. Dictionary use (focus on the use of electronic dictionary)
d. Idioms and phrasal verbs
The Curriculum has two broad sections : Language Development and literature. The allocation of working hours for language development and literature will be 73 and 55 respectively.
Note: Activities focusing on the specific features of vocabulary e.g. prefixes, suffixes, changing word class, synonyms, antonyms, giving single words, concussing words, etc. should be designed based on the reading texts.

5 Learning Facilitation Process

5.1 Principles of Language Pedagogy

The current grade XI and XII curriculum is based on the following pedagogic principles :
⇲ Content and language integrated learning: Language learning becomes effective when the learners develop an awareness of some specific content knowledge. Meaningful content relating to the real world helps learners comprehend not only the content itself but also the accompanying language. Integrating content and language is a clear departure from the mere communication towards a meaningful cognition through the language being learnt.
⇲ Real world link: The principle of real world link is about exposing learners to the realities of the world through meaningful information and knowledge. Simulated and real tasks allow learners to envisage how the English language will be used in their real life.
⇲ Diversity as a resource: In diverse classrooms, with learners from multilingual and multicultural backgrounds, exploiting diversity as a resource helps not only in the teaching learning process but also in creating social cohesion. The content from diverse contexts establishes the pluralistic concept first in the classrooms and later in the real world.

⇲ Learning through Information and Communication Technology (ICT): With the advent of the ICT, language learning has been more accessible to the learners. The mobile and media technologies allow learners to access learning materials from anywhere and anytime. The use of ICT tools in the classroom pedagogy gives learners more autonomy in different ways.
⇲ Learner engagement: Language learning becomes enriching as well as fulfilling when learners are fully engaged. Their engagement in the pedagogical process should be ensured with their involvement in the meaningful tasks, projects and out of class activities. Engaged learners are not only successful in developing their language but also become a resource for the class.

5.2 Learning Activities

Based on the above-mentioned pedagogical principles, the following activities have been suggested in order to achieve the competencies of this curriculum:
⇲ Reading and presentation
⇲ Writing projects
⇲ Dramatization, role-play and simulation
⇲ Inquiry-based writing
⇲ Reading for comprehension
⇲ Reading for critical assessment/analysis
⇲ Discussion sessions
⇲ Think - Pair- Share
⇲ RDWS (Read, Discuss, Write and Say/Share)
⇲ Teacher-guided self-study
⇲ Journal writing
⇲ Library visits
⇲ Listening to lyrical poems and songs

⇲ Reciting lyrical poems and songs
⇲ Watching movies (animated/unanimated, comic) and dramas
⇲ Brainstorming and mind mapping
⇲ Quick write/flash writing
⇲ Book/film reviews
⇲ Paraphrasing

5.3 Instructional Materials for Learning Facilitation

Each student must have a textbook. Each teacher should have a teacher’s guide and a set of teacher support materials for the appropriate grade, including digital and electronic materials as far as practicable. Teachers should make an extensive and proper use of the board. To make learning easy, effective and interesting, a variety of materials should be used including the following:
⇲ Charts
⇲ Comparison tables
⇲ Role cards
⇲ Newspapers
⇲ Bulletins, brochures
⇲ Pictures/drawings
⇲ Audio-visual materials
⇲ Writing samples (e.g. essay, book/film review, mind mapping, brainstorming, etc.)
⇲ Worksheets

⇲ Flash cards
⇲ Formats (of book review/film review/project work, etc.)
⇲ Dictionaries, computers, audio players and mobile phones
⇲ Multi-media
⇲ Online resources
⇲ Readers
⇲ Additional references
⇲ Sample interpretation/sample summaries/character sketches/poems, etc.

6. Student Assessment

The letter grading system will be used for assessing the students' performance. In order to assess the student's learning achievement as expected by this curriculum, formative as well as summative and internal as well as external assessment will be done. In order to ensure the learning of the students, informal assessment will be conducted regularly and timely feedback will be provided to the students for improvement. The goal of formative assessment is to help the learners to learn more rather than to check what they have learnt and what they have not. Formative assessment should focus on those areas which pose problems in learning. This can also take the form of remedial teaching. Formative assessment should focus on the development of all the language skills and aspects in the learners. Various classroom activities and techniques should be used to help the learners to learn more. The following techniques/activities can be used as tools for formative assessment:
S.N. Grade 12
1 Observation of students' linguistic behaviour
2 Anecdotal record
3 Rating scale
4 Check lists
5 Work sample/written samples
6 Interviews
7 Home assignments
8 Portfolio
9 Tests (class, weekly, monthly, trimester)
10 Project works
11 Creative works
12 Self-initiation in learning
13 Class work
14 Games
15 Debates
16 Story telling/retelling
17 Poetry recitation
18 Dramatization/simulation
19 Role play
20 Group discussion
21 Journal writing

As a part of summative assessment, tests for assessing four skills of language, viz. listening, speaking, reading and writing will be conducted terminally. Listening and speaking tests will be conducted on practical basis. There will be both internal as well as external evaluation as part of summative or final assessment.

6.1 Internal Evaluation:

The international evaluation covers 25 marks. The allocation of marks is as follows:

2Listening test6
3Speaking test10
4Score from terminal exams6
Total Marks25

6.2 External evaluation:

The external evaluation carries 75 marks. The allocation of marks for each language skill and aspect is given below:

S.N. Language, skills and aspects Marks
1 Reading 35
2 Writing 25
3 Grammar 10
4 Vocabulary 5
Total 75

6.3 Alternative Evaluation

For the students with disabilities, alternative assessment tools will be used. They are suggested in the test specification grid.

6.4 Elaboration of Internal Assessment

S.N. Areas Marks Guidelines for evaluation
1 Participation 3 This covers students’ attendance, participation in classroom activities
and their performance on classwork, homework and project works
assigned to them. The teacher needs to maintain the record of students.
The same record is to be consulted to award the marks for this aspect.
2 Listening test 6 1. Listening comprehension
Types of sound files:
(The sound files may contain: lectures, talks, presentations, poetry,
interviews, conversations, short discussions, advertisements, personal
accounts (oral anecdotes, past experiences) narratives (e.g. radio dramas),
instructions and directions, factual accounts (e.g. eye news reports, eye
witness accounts, explanations, public announcements operating
instructions, weather forecast) There will be two listening tasks on two
different sound files. Each task should consist of three questions.
Note: The sound files should be authentic and clearly articulated with
normal speed of delivery. Each sound file should be of 3 minute maximum
in length.
Listening constructs to be focused:
a. Specific information
b. Gist
c. Main information and supporting details
d. Specific information and important details
Number of sound files:
Two sound files each carrying 3 marks will be used.
Length of the sound file: Maximum three minutes
Types of test items
1. Multiple choice
2. Fill in the blanks
3. Matching
4. Short answer questions
Alternative test methods for students with speech and hearing difficulties
For the students with speech and hearing difficulties,
any one of the following types of questions can be asked:
1. Paragraph writing on a given topic
2. Writing a letter
3. Writing a description of the given picture
Time: 20 minutes
3 Speaking test 10 The speaking test will be administered practically. The test starts with
greeting and introducing to make the students feel comfortable. This will
not carry any marks. The speaking test consists of the following sections:
1. Introduction and interview (3 marks)
The students will be asked at least any three questions on their personal
affairs and immediate situation. (How are you preparing for the exam?
What will you study after grade 12? What’s your aim in life? Do you like
English? Why?/Why not?
2. Describing pictures (4 marks)
The students are given a picture or a set of pictures. They are expected
to describe the picture in at least 8 sentences.
3. Speaking on a given topic (3marks)
The students will be given a topic like; my school, my hobby, my family.
They will get one-minute time to think over the topic and then they will
speak on the topic. This will also be done individually.
Time: 10 to 15 minutes for per student
Alternative test methods for students with visual difficulties
For the students with visual difficulties, ask them to narrate a sequence
of events instead of the task 2 ‘describing pictures’ above.
4 Score from terminal
6 3 marks from each terminal exams

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DR Gurung
A Learner (अज्ञान जस्तो ठूलो शत्रु अरु केही छैन।) 🙏🙏
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