Physics
Grade/Class - XII/12
Subject Code - 102
Credit Hours - 5
Working hours - 160
Here we present you the Curriculum of Grade 12-XII of the subject Physics with Subject Code-102 NEB 2076/2020. Check and download in PDF file of Physics curriculum class 12-xii 2076/2020. 2076 New Curriculum of Grade 12-XII Physics Subject with subject code-102 and download it in PDF file. Enjoy!
1. Introduction

This curriculum presumes that the students joining grade 11 and 12 science stream come with diverse aspirations, some may continue to higher level studies in specific areas of science, others may join technical and vocational areas or even other streams. The curriculum is designed to provide students with general understanding of the fundamental scientific laws and principles that govern the scientific phenomena in the world. It focuses to develop scientific knowledge, skill competences and attitudes required at secondary level (grade 11-12) irrespective of what they do beyond this level, as envisioned by national goals. Understanding of scientific concepts and their application, in day to day context as well as the process of obtaining new knowledge through holistic approach of learning in the spirit of national qualification framework is emphasized in the curriculum.

In particular, this curriculum aims to provide sufficient knowledge and understanding of science for all learners to become confident citizens in the technological world. It helps the students to recognize the usefulness and limitations of laws and principles of physics and use them in solving problems encountered in their daily lives along a sound foundation for students who wish to study physics or related professional or vocational courses in higher education. It also helps to develop science related attitudes such as a concern for safety and efficiency, concern for accuracy and precision, objectivity, a spirit of enquiry, inventiveness, appreciation of ethno-science, and willingness to use technology for effective communication. It also promotes awareness of the principles and laws of science that are often the result of cumulative efforts and their studies and applications are subject to economic and technological limitations and social, cultural and ethical perceptions/acceptance.
The curriculum prepared in accordance with National Curriculum Framework is structured for two academic years in such a way that it incorporates the level-wise competencies, grade-wise leaning outcomes, scope and sequence of contents, suggested practical/project activities, learning facilitation process and assessment strategies so as to enhance the learning on the subject systematically.
2. Level-wise competencies

In completion of this course, students are expected to demonstrate the following competencies:
1. relate the phenomena and processes of the world around them to the knowledge and understanding of physical laws, principles and theories and describe them using appropriate scientific vocabulary, terminology and conventions
2. use scientific instruments, apparatus and methods to collect, evaluate and communicate
information accurately and precisely

3. design simple experiment to develop relations among physical quantities,
4. carryout simple scientific research on issues related to physics and
5. construct simple models to illustrate physical concepts
6. use the knowledge of physics to promote care for the environment, indigenous knowledge, social values and ethics

3. Grade wise learning Outcomes
Grade 12
Content Area: Mechanics
1.
Rotational dynamics
1.1 Recall equations of angular motion and compare them with equations of linear motion
1.2 Derive the expression for rotational kinetic energy
1.3 Describe the term moment of inertia and radius of gyration
1.4 Find the moment of inertia of thin uniform rod rotating about its center and its one end
1.5 Establish the relation between torque and angular acceleration of a rigid body
1.6 Describe the work and power in rotational motion with expression
1.7 Define angular momentum and prove the principle of conservation of angular momentum
1.8 Solve numerical problems and conceptual questions regarding the rotational dynamics
2.
Periodic motion
2.1 Define simple harmonic motion and state its equation.
2.2 Derive the expressions for energy in simple harmonic motion
2.3 Derive the expression for period for vertical oscillation of a mass suspended from coiled spring
2.4 Describe angular simple harmonic motion and find its period
2.5 Derive expression for period of simple pendulum
2.6 Explain the damped oscillation
2.7 Describe forced oscillation and resonance with suitable examples
2.8 Solve the numerical problems and conceptual questions regarding the periodic motion
3.
Fluid statics
3.1 State and explain Archimedes principle and Pascal’s law
3.2 Define up-thrust, pressure in fluid, buoyancy, center of buoyancy and meta center
3.3 State and use the law of floatation,
3.4 Describe surface tension and explain its principle
3.5 Establish the relation between surface energy and surface tension
3.6 Define angle of contact and capillarity with examples
3.7 State the Newton’s Formula for viscosity of a liquid and define coefficient of viscosity
3.8 Differentiate between laminar and turbulent flow & describe Reynolds number
3.9 Recall and use the Poiseuille’s formula
3.10 State Stoke’s law and use it to determine the coefficient of viscosity of given liquid
3.11 Explain equation of continuity and its application
3.12 Recall the Bernoulli’s equation and explain its uses
3.13 Solve the numerical problems and conceptual questions regarding the fluid statics
Content Area: Heat and Thermodynamics
4.
First Law of Thermodynamics
4.1 Clarify the concept of thermodynamic system.
4.2 Explain the meaning of work done by the system and work done on the system, and describe how work done by gas during expansion can be calculated from indicator (P – V) diagram.
4.3 Explain the concept of latent heat and internal energy.
4.4 State and explain first law of thermodynamics - increase of internal energy (dU) = heat into the system (dQ) + work done on the system (PdV) realizing its limitations and necessity of second law of thermodynamics.
4.5 Define and explain two specific heat capacities of gas appreciating the relation Cp – Cv = R and cp – cv = r.
4.6 Explain various thermodynamic process (isothermal, isobaric, isochoric and adiabatic) with good concept of their P – V diagram.
4.7 Derive adiabatic equation PV = constant.
4.8 Derive expression for work done during isothermal and adiabatic process.
4.9 Give concept of reversible and irreversible process with examples.
4.10 Solve mathematical problems related to first law of thermodynamics and thermodynamic process.
5.
Second Law of Thermodynamics
5.1 State and explain second law of thermodynamics (Kelvin’s and Clausius’s statement).
5.2 Compare second and first law of thermodynamics considering indication of direction of flow of heat.
5.3 Explain heat engine as a device to convert heat energy into mechanical energy appreciating that its efficiency is less than 100%.
5.4 Discuss Carnot’s cycle with the concept of P – V diagram and calculate the work done of each step and corresponding efficiency.
5.5 Describe internal combustion engines, Otto engine and diesel engine with the help of P – V diagram to compare their efficiencies.
5.6 Explain refrigerator as heat engine working in reverse direction
5.7 Introduce entropy as a measure of disorder appreciating its roles in thermodynamic process.
5.8 Solve mathematical problems related to heat engine.
Content Area: Wave and Optics
6.
Wave motion
6.1 Define and understand progressive wave
6.2 Write progressive wave in mathematical form
6.3 Discuss the condition under which stationary waves can be formed
6.4 Write stationary wave in mathematical form
6.5 Calculate frequency, amplitude, velocity, time period, etc of progressive wave
6.6 Find expression for stationary wave using two progressive waves
7.
Mechanical waves
7.1 Calculate Speed of wave motion
7.2 Understand and write expression for the Velocity of sound in solid and liquid
7.3 Describe Velocity of sound in gas
7.4 Describe Laplace correction
7.5 Formulate the effect of temperature, pressure, humidity on velocity of sound and their physical meaning
7.6 Solve numerical problems related to velocity of sound in the given medium and condition
8.
Wave in pipes and strings
8.1 Understand the formation of stationery waves in closed and open pipes
8.2 Define and understand harmonics and overtones
8.3 Discuss harmonics and overtones in closed and open organ pipes
8.4 Understand end correction in pipes
8.5 State and use the formula for velocity of transverse waves along a stretched string
8.6 Understand Vibration of string and overtones
8.7 Know the laws of vibration of fixed string.
9.
Acoustic phenomena:
9.1 Describe sound waves as pressure waves in a medium
9.2 Characterize the sound using its intensity, loudness, quality and pitch
9.3 Discuss Doppler’s effect
9.4 Apply Doppler effect in realistic case where source and observers are in relative motion.
10.
Nature and propagation of Light:
10.1 Use Huygen's principle to explain reflection and refraction of light
11.
Interference
11.1 Explain the Phenomenon of Interferences
11.2 Understand the meaning of coherent sources
11.3 Describe Young's double slit experiment and obtain the expression fro nth order maxima
12.
Diffraction
12.1 Describe diffraction at a single slit
12.2 Understand diffraction pattern of image and derive the expression for the position of nth order minima
12.3 Explain diffraction through transmission/diffraction grating and use the formula d sinqn = nl for maxima
12.4 Explain resolving power of optical instruments
13.
Polarization
13.1 Describe phenomenon of polarization
13.2 Explain how polarization of light explains the transverse nature of light
13.3 State and use Brewster’s law
13.4 Show the understanding of construction, working principle and uses of Potentiometer for comparing emfs and measuring internal resistance of cells
Content Area: Electricity and Magnetism
14.
Electrical circuits:
14.1 Understand Kirchhoff’s law as well as use it to calculate unknown parameters in electrical circuits
14.2 Describe the circuit diagram and working of Wheatstone bridge circuit and understand its importance in real situation
14.3 Describe Meter bridge and understand it
14.4 Know construction, working and importance of Potentiometer
14.5 Understand the concept of super conductors
14.6 Know the meaning of perfect conductors and distinguish it from superconductor
14.7 Learn the technique to convert galvanometer into voltmeter and ammeter
15.
Thermoelectric effects:
15.1 Explain Seebeck effect and its application in Thermocouples
15.2 Show understanding of the construction and working principle of thermocouple as a temperature measuring device
15.3 Explain Peltier effect
15.4 Understand the construction and working of Thermopile
16.
Magnetic field:
16.1 Show understanding of the concept of magnetic field lines and magnetic flux and sketch magnetic field lines around a straight current carrying conductor and long solenoid
16.2 Explain Oersted’s experiment, its outcome and limitations
16.3 Discuss force on moving charge in uniform magnetic field
16.4 Discuss force on a current carrying conductor placed in uniform magnetic field
16.5 Describe force and Torque on rectangular coil placed in uniform magnetic field
16.6 Describe moving coil galvanometer and know its applications
16.7 Explain Hall effect and derive the expression VH=BI/ntq where t is thickness
16.8 Use Hall probe to measure flux density of a uniform magnetic field
16.9 State Biot and Savart law and know its application on (i) a circular coil (ii) a
long straight conductor (iii) a long solenoid
16.10 State Ampere’s law and know its applications to (i) a long straight conductor (ii) a straight solenoid (ii) a toroidal solenoid
16.11 Discuss force between two parallel conductors carrying current- definition of ampere
17.
Magnetic properties of materials:
17.1 Define relative permeability and relative susceptibility of a magnetic material
17.2 Discuss relationship between relative permeability and susceptibility
17.3 Discuss Hysteresis of ferromagnetism
17.4 Understand Dia,-para- and ferromagnetic materials
18.
Electromagnetic Induction:
18.1 State and show understanding of Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction
18.2 State and show understanding of Lenz’s law
18.3 Discuss construction and working of A.C. generators
18.4 Define eddy currents, explain how they arise and give a few examples where eddy currents are useful and where they are nuisance
18.5 Describe self-inductance and mutual inductance and understand their uses
18.6 State the expression for energy stored in an inductor and use it wherever needed
18.7 Discuss the construction, working principle and importance of transformer
18.8 Discuss the sources of energy loss in practical transformer
19.
Alternating Currents:
19.1 Understand peak and rms value of AC current and voltage
19.2 Discuss AC through a resistor, a capacitor and an inductor
19.3 Understand Phasor diagram in RC and RL circuits
19.4 Discuss series circuits containing combination of resistance, capacitance and inductance
19.5 Describe series resonance condition and know its applications
19.6 Understand the meaning of quality factor
19.7 Discuss power in AC circuits and know the term power factor
Content Area: Modern Physics
20.
Electrons
20.1 Describe Millikan’s oil drop experiment and explain how it suggests quantization of charge
20.2 Describe the motion of electrons in electric and magnetic fields and derive appropriate mathematical expressions
20.3 Describe J.J Thomson’s experiment with suitable diagrams to explain the discovery of electron and its characters
20.4 Solve numerical problems related to above topics
21.
Photons
21.1 Describe quantum nature of radiation
21.2 Explain properties of photons
21.3 Describe work function and photoelectric effect
21.4 Derive Einstein’s photoelectric equation
21.5 Describe Millikan’s experiment for the verification of Einstein’s photoelectric equation and calculate Planck’s constant
21.6 Solve some related problems
22.
Semiconductor devices
22.1 Describe the formation of PN junction and semiconductor diode
22.2 Plot forward and reverse characteristics of semiconductor diode including the concept of Zener diode
22.3 Define rectifier
22.4 Describe full wave rectification using semiconductor diodes
22.5 Define logic gates and explain operation of different logic gates OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR gates with their symbol , Boolean algebra and truth table
23.
Quantization of energy
23.1 Write the postulates of Bohr’s model
23.2 Derive the expression of radius of nth orbit, velocity of electron in nth orbit and total energy of electron in nth orbit of H-atom
23.3 Obtain the expression of wavelength of a spectral line
23.4 Obtain mathematical expressions different spectral series of H-atom
23.5 Differentiate excitation and ionization potentials
23.6 Explain emission and absorption spectra
23.7 Describe de Broglie hypothesis
23.8 Define x-rays
23.9 Describe modern Coolidge tube method for the production of x-rays with quality and quantity
23.10 Illustrate different properties of x-rays along with their applications
23.11 Solve numerical problems related to quantization of energy
24.
Radioactivity and nuclear reaction
24.1 Explain the meaning of Radioactivity – natural and artificial
24.2 Differentiate types of radiations coming from radioactive sources – alpha, beta particles and gamma rays and state their properties
24.3 Explain radioactive disintegration law
24.4 Obtain the expressions of half-life, decay constant and mean life
24.5 Explain the working of Geiger-Muller Tube
24.6 Analyze some medical uses and health hazard of nuclear radiation
24.7 Work out some related numerical problems
24.8 Reason conceptual questions
25.
Recent trends in physics
25.1 Seismology
a. Briefly explain the origin of earthquakes
b. Explain different types of surface waves: Rayleigh and Love waves
c. Explain different types of internal waves: S and P-waves
d. Give brief introduction to the wave patterns of Gorkha Earthquake 2015
25.2 Demonstrate basic ideas on
a. Gravitational Wave
b. Nanotechnology
c. Higgs Boson
4. Scope and Sequence of Contents

Grade 12
Contents
TH
Content Area: Mechanics
1. Rotational dynamics
1.1 Equation of angular motion, Relation between linear and angular kinematics
1.2 Kinetic energy of rotation of rigid body
1.3 Moment of inertia; Radius of gyration
1.4 Moment of inertia of a uniform rod
1.5 Torque and angular acceleration for a rigid body
1.6 Work and power in rotational motion
1.7 Angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum.
7
2. Periodic motion
2.1 Equation of simple harmonic motion (SHM)
2.2 Energy in SHM
2.3 Application of SHM: vertical oscillation of mass suspended from coiled spring
2.4 Angular SHM, simple pendulum
2.5 Oscillatory motion: Damped oscillation, Forced oscillation and resonance.
6
3. Fluid statics
3.1 Fluid statics: Pressure in a fluid; Buoyancy
3.2 Surface tension: Theory of surface tension; Surface energy
3.3 Angle of contact, capillarity and its applications
3.4 Fluid Dynamics: Newton’s formula for viscosity in a liquid; Coefficient of viscosity
3.5 Poiseuille’s formula and its application
3.6 Stokes law and its applications
3.7 Equation of continuity and its applications
3.8 Bernoulli’s equation and its applications.
9
Content Area: Heat and Thermodynamics
4. First Law of Thermodynamics
4.1 Thermodynamic systems
4.2 Work done during volume change
4.3 Heat and work; Internal energy and First law of thermodynamics
4.4 Thermodynamic processes: Adiabatic, isochoric, isothermal and isobaric
4.5 Heat capacities of an ideal gas at constant pressure and volume and relation between them
4.6 Isothermal and Adiabatic processes for an ideal gas.
6
5. Second Law of Thermodynamics
5.1 Thermodynamic systems and direction of thermodynamic processes
5.2 Second law of thermodynamics
5.3 Heat engines
5.4 Internal combustion engines: Otto cycle, Diesel cycle; Carnot cycle
5.5 Refrigerator
5.6 Entropy and disorder (introduction only)
6
Content Area: Wave and Optics
6. Wave motion
6.1 Progressive waves
6.2 Mathematical description of awave
6.3 Stationary waves
2
7. Mechanical waves
7.1 Speed of wave motion; Velocity of sound in solid and liquid
7.2 Velocity of sound in gas
7.3 Laplace’s correction
7.4 Effect of temperature, pressure, humidity on velocity of sound.
4
8. Wave in pipes and strings
8.1 Stationary waves in closed and open pipes
8.2 Harmonics and overtones in closed and open organ pipes
8.3 End correction in pipes
8.4 Velocity of transverse waves along a stretched string
8.5 Vibration of string and overtones
8.6 Laws of vibration of fixed string.
4
9. Acoustic phenomena
9.1 Sound waves: Pressure amplitude
9.2 Characteristics of sound: Intensity; loudness, quality and pitch
9.3 Doppler’s effect.
5
10. Nature and propagation of Light
10.1 Huygen’s principle
10.2 Reflection and Refraction according to wave theory
3
11. Interference
11.1 Phenomenon of Interferences: Coherent sources
11.2 Young’s double slit experiment.
2
12. Diffraction
12.1 Diffraction from a single slit
12.2 Diffraction pattern of image; Diffraction grating
12.3 Resolving power of optical instruments.
3
13. Polarization
13.1 Phenomenon of polarization
13.2 Brewster’s law; transverse nature of light
13.3 Polaroid.
3
Content Area: Electricity and Magnetism
14. Electrical circuits
14.1 Kirchhoff’s law
14.2 Wheatstone bridge circuit; Meter bridge
14.3 Potentiometer: Comparison of e.m.f., measurement of internal resistances of a cell
14.4 Super conductors; Perfect conductors
14.5 Conversion of galvanometer into voltmeter and ammeter; Ohmmeter
14.6 Joule’s law
6
15. Thermoelectric effects:
15.1 Seebeck effect; Thermocouples
15.2 Peltier effect: Variation of thermoelectric e.m.f. with temperature; Thermopile
3
16. Magnetic field
16.1 Magnetic field lines and magnetic flux; Oersted’s experiment
16.2 Force on moving charge; Force on a conductor
16.3 Force and Torque on rectangular coil, Moving coil galvanometer
16.4 Hall effect
16.5 Magnetic field of a moving charge
16.6 Biot and Savart law and its application to (i) a circular coil (ii) a long straight conductor (iii) a long solenoid
16.7 Ampere’s law and its applications to (i) a long straight conductor (ii) a straight solenoid (ii) a toroidal solenoid
16.8 Force between two parallel conductors carrying current- definition of ampere
9
17. Magnetic properties of materials:
17.1 Magnetic field lines and magnetic flux
17.2 Flux density in magnetic material; Relative permeability; Susceptibility
17.3 Hysteresis
17.4 Dia,-para- and ferro-magnetic materials.
5
18. Electromagnetic Induction:
18.1 Faraday’s laws; Induced electric fields
18.2 Lenz’s law, Motional electromotive force
18.3 A.C. generators; Eddy currents
18.4 Self-inductance and mutual inductance
18.5 Energy stored in an inductor
18.6 Transformer.
6
19. Alternating Currents
19.1 Peak and rms value of AC current and voltage
19.2 AC through a resistor, a capacitor and an inductor
19.3 Phasor diagram
19.4 Series circuits containing combination of resistance, capacitance and inductance
19.5 Series resonance, quality factor
19.6 Power in AC circuits: power factor
6
Content Area: Modern Physics
20. Electrons
20.1 Milikan’s oil drop experiment,
20.2 Motion of electron beam in electric and magnetic fields
20.3 Thomson’s experiment to determine specific charge of electrons
4
21. Photons
21.1 Quantum nature of radiation
21.2 Einstein’s photoelectric equation; Stopping potential
21.3 Measurement of Plank’s constant
3
22. Semiconductor devices
22.1 P-N Junction
22.2 Semiconductor diode: Characteristics in forward and reverse bias
22.3 Full wave rectification
22.4 Logic gates; NOT, OR, AND, NAND and NOR.
6
23. Quantization of energy
23.1 Bohr’s theory of hydrogen atom
23.2 Spectral series; Excitation and ionization potentials
23.3 Energy level; Emission and absorption spectra
23.4 De Broglie Theory; Duality
23.5 Uncertainly principle
23.6 X-rays: Nature and production; uses
23.7 X-rays diffraction, Bragg’s law.
8
24. Radioactivity and nuclear reaction
24.1 Alpha-particles; Beta-particles, Gamma rays
24.2 Laws of radioactive disintegration
24.3 Half-life, mean-life and decay constant
24.4 Geiger-Muller Tube
24.5 Carbon dating
24.6 Medical use of nuclear radiation and possible health hazard.
6
25. Recent trends in physics
Seismology:
25.1 Surface waves: Rayleigh and Love waves
Internal waves: S and P-waves
Wave patterns of Gorkha Earthquake 2015
25.2 Gravitational Wave
Nanotechnology
Higgs Boson
6
128
5. Practical Courses [32 Hours]
The practical work that students do during their course is aimed at providing them learning opportunities to accomplish competency number 2 and 3 of the syllabus as well as reinforcing their learning of the theoretical subject content. This part of the syllabus focuses more on skill building than knowledge building. Students must be aware of the importance of precision, accuracy, significant figures, range and errors while collecting, processing, analyzing and communicating data. Likewise, graphical method of analysis and drawing conclusion should be encouraged wherever possible.

Students should

1. learn to use metre rule for measuring length, Vernier-calipers for measuring small thicknesses, internal and external diameters of cylindrical objects and depths of holes, spherometer for measuring radius of curvature of spherical surfaces and micrometer screw-gauge for measuring diameter of small spherical or cylindrical objects and very small thicknesses, traveling microscope with Vernier scale for measuring small distances, top-pan balance for measuring small masses, stop watch for measuring time interval, laboratory thermometer for measuring temperature, protractor for measuring angle), ammeter and milli-ammeter for measuring electric current and voltmeter for measuring electric potential difference.

2. learn to measure precisely up to the least count of the measuring instrument-

metre  rule – 0.001m or 1 mm
Vernier calipers - 0.1 mm
- 0.01 mm
micrometer screw gauge - 0.01 mm
stop watch - 0.01s
laboratory thermometer - 0.5oC
protractor - 1o
3. learn to repeat readings and take the average value

4. learn to draw a standard table, with appropriate heading and unit for every column for storing data

5. learn to plot a graph using standard format, draw suitable trend lines, determine gradient, intercepts and area and use them to draw appropriate conclusion

6. learn to estimate and handle uncertainties.

In each academic year, students should perform 10 experiments, either listed below or designed by teacher, so that no more than three experiments come from the same unit of this syllabus.

a) Practical Activities for Grade 12

I. Mechanics

1. Use of Simple pendulum for the determination of the value of ‘g’ in the laboratory by graphically analyzing the variation of period of oscillations with length of the pendulum.
2. Determination of the surface tension of water by capillary tube method by graphically analyzing the variation of by graphically analyzing the variation of height of the liquid against the diameter of capillary tube for five capillaries of different diameters dipped in water simultaneously.
3. Determination of the coefficient of viscosity of liquid by Stoke’s method by graphically analyzing the variation of time taken for six metal balls of different diameters to travel the same distance in the given liquid with respect to their diameters.

II. Wave and Optics

4. Determination of the wavelength of He-Ne laser light by passing a plane diffraction grating.
5. Determination of the frequency of A.C. Mains using sonometer and graphically analyzing the variation of the ratio of resonating lengths with respect to the frequency of tuning fork using tuning forks of different frequencies.
6. Determination of velocity of sound in air at NTP using resonance tube.

III. Electricity and magnetism

7. Use of potentiometer for the
a) Comparison of emf’s of two cells
b) Determination of the internal resistance of a cell

8. Study the variation or resistance of a thermistor with temperature.
1. Use of deflection magnetometer to determination of the pole strength and magnetic moment of a bar magnet
2. Determine the magnetic field strength of a bar magnet stuck on table by graphically analyzing the period of torsional motion of a freely suspended bar magnet and its distance from the near pole of the fixed magnet along its long axis.

IV. Modern Physics

11. Study the I-V characteristics of a semiconductor diode.

e) Sample project works for grade 12

1. Study the traffic noise level in your town using a sound pressure level (SPL) meter.
2. Design and construct a step-up transformer.
3. Construct a simple device to measure angle of contact of a liquid with a solid surface and also calculate the surface free energy of some hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces.
4. Calculate the surface free energy of some hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces.
5. Construct a simple DC motor using a disk type magnet and a battery.
6. Construct a model of AC generator/dynamo.
7. Construct a current balance to measure magnetic flux density of a U-shaped magnet.
8. Construction of a step down transformer attached with a full wave rectifier made from semiconductor diodes.

f) Some examples of innovative works for grade 12

1. Construct a thermocouple thermometer and use it to investigate how temperature of a Bunsen burner flame changes with the height of the flame from the top of the burner.
2. Study of the status of hydroelectricity in Nepal.
3. Study of application of laws and principle of physics in any indigenous technology.
4. Verify Joule’ law.

5. Investigation on Peltier effect.
6. History of space exploration
7. Study on history of nuclear power in Asia

6. Learning Facilitation Method and Process

Students should be facilitated to learn rather than just accumulation of information. Teacher plays vital role for delivering subject matters although others' role is also important. Student centered teaching-learning process is highly emphasized. Students are supposed to adopt multiple pathway of learning, such as online search, field visit, library work, laboratory work, individual and group work, research work etc. with the support of teacher. Self-study by students is highly encouraged and learning should not be confined to the scope of curriculum. Teacher should keep in mind intra and inter-disciplinary approach to teaching and learning, as opposed to compartmentalization of knowledge. Supportive role of parents/guardians in creating conducive environment for promoting the spirit of inquiry and creativity in students' learning i anticipated.

During the delivery process of science teaching in grade 11 and 12, basically following three approaches will be adopted;

a. Conceptual/Theoritical:
Knowledge of content (fact,terminology,definitio ns,learning procedures
Understanding of content ( concept,ideas,theories,priciples), 3.5 credit hrs spent for understanding of content.
b. Practical/Appication/Experimental:
Lab. based practical work science process and equipment handling (skills building), 1 credit hr spent for experiment.

c. Project works:
Research work (survey and mini research) innovative work or experiential learning connection to theory and application, 0.5 credit hr spent in field work.

a) Conceptual/Theoretical Approach:

Possible theoretical methods of delivery may include the following;
 lecture
 interaction
 question answer
 demonstrations
 ICT based instructions
 cooperative learning
 group discussions (satellite learning group, peer group, small and large group)
 debate
 seminar presentation
 Journal publishing
 daily assignment

b) Practical/Application/Experimental approach:

Practical work is the integral part of the learning science. The process of lab based practical work comprises as;
 familiarity with objective of practical work
 familiarity with materials, chemicals, apparatus

 familiarity with lab process (safety, working modality etc.)
 conduction of practical work (systematically following the given instruction)
 analysis, interpretation and drawing conclusion

c) Project work Approach:

Project work is an integral part of the science learning. Students should be involved in project work to foster self-learning of students in the both theoretical and practical contents. Students will complete project work to have practical idea through learning by doing approach and able to connect the theory into the real world context. It is regarded as method/ process of learning rather than content itself. So use of project work method to facilitate any appropriate contents of this curriculum is highly encouraged.

In this approach student will conduct at least one research work, or an innovative work under the guidance of teacher, using the knowledge and skills learnt. It could include any of the followings;
(a) Mini research
(b) Survey
(c) Model construction
(d) Paper based work
(e) study of ethno-science

General process of research work embraces the following steps;
 Understanding the objective of the research
 Planning and designing
 Collecting information
 analysis and interpretation
 Reporting /communicating (presentation, via visual aids, written report, graphical etc.)
General process of innovative work embraces the following steps;
 identification of innovative task (either assigned by teacher or proposed by student)
 planning
 performing the task
 debate
 seminar presentation
 Journal publishing
 daily assignment

Students are free to choose any topic listed in this curriculum or a topic suggested by teacher provided that it is within the theoretical contents of the Curriculum. However, repetition of topic should be discouraged.

Learning process matrix

Knowledge and understanding
Scientific skills and process
Values, attitudes and application to daily life
a) Scientific phenomenon, facts, definition, principles, theory, concepts and new discoveries
a) Basic and integrated scientific process skills Process
a) Responsible
b) Scientific vocabulary, glossary and terminology
b) Investigation
b) Spending time for
investigation
c) Scientific tools, devises,
instruments apparatus
c) Creative thinking
d) Techniques of uses of
scientific instruments with safety
d) problem solving
e) Scientific and technological applications
Basic Science Process Skills includes,

1. Observing: using senses to gather information about an object or event. It is description of what was actually perceived.
2. Measuring: comparing unknown physical quantity with known quantity (standard unit) of same type.
3. Inferring: formulating assumptions or possible explanations based upon observations.
4. Classifying: grouping or ordering objects or events into categories based upon characteristics or defined criteria.
5. Predicting: guessing the most likely outcome of a future event based upon a pattern of evidence.
6. Communicating: using words, symbols, or graphics to describe an object, action or event.

Integrated Science Process Skills includes,

1. Formulating hypotheses: determination of the proposed solutions or expected outcomes for experiments. These proposed solutions to a problem must be testable.
2. Identifying of variables: Identification of the changeable factors (independent and dependent variables) that can affect an experiment.
3. Defining variables operationally: explaining how to measure a variable in an experiment.
4. Describing relationships between variables: explaining relationships between variables in an experiment such as between the independent and dependent variables.

5. Designing investigations: designing an experiment by identifying materials and describing appropriate steps in a procedure to test a hypothesis.
6. Experimenting: carrying out an experiment by carefully following directions of the procedure so the results can be verified by repeating the procedure several times.
7. Acquiring data: collecting qualitative and quantitative data as observations and measurements.
8. Organizing data in tables and graphs: presenting collected data in tables and graphs.
9. Analyzing investigations and their data: interpreting data, identifying errors, evaluating the hypothesis, formulating conclusions, and recommending further testing where necessary.
10. Understanding cause and effect relationships: understanding what caused what to happen and why.
11. Formulating models: recognizing patterns in data and making comparisons to familiar objects or ideas.

7. Student Assessment

Evaluation is an integral part of learning process. Both formative and summative modes of evaluation are emphasized. Formative evaluation will be conducted so as to provide regular feedback for students, teachers and parents/guardians about how student learning is. Class tests, unit tests, oral question-answer, home assignment etc. are some ways of formative evaluation. 

There will be separate evaluation of theoretical and practical learning. Summative evaluation embraces theoretical examination, practical examination and evaluation of research work or innovative work.

(a) Internal Evaluation

Out of 100 full marks Internal evaluation covers 25 marks. Internal evaluation consists of Practical work (16 marks), (b) Marks from trimester examinations (6 marks), and (c) Classroom participation (3 marks)

 Practical Activities

Practical work and project work should be based on list of activities mentioned in this curriculum or designed by the teacher. Mark distribution for practical work and project work will be as follows:

S.N.
Criteria
Elaboration of Criteria
Marks
1
Laboratory experiment
Correctness of apparatus setup/preparation
2
Observation/Experimentation
2
Tabulation
1
Data Processing and Analysis
1
Conclusion (Value of constants or prediction with justification)
1
Handling of errors/precaution
1
2
Viva-voce
Understanding of objective of the experiment
1
Skills of the handling of apparatus in use
1
Overall impression
1
3
Practical work records and attendance
Records (number and quality)
2
4
Project work
Reports (background, objective, methodology, finding, conclusion
2
Presentation
1

TOTAL
16
Note:
(i) Practical examination will be conducted in the presence of internal and external supervisors. Evaluation of laboratory experiment will focus both the product of work and skills competencies of student in using apparatus.
(ii) Project work assessment is the internal assessment of reports and presentation of their project works either individually or group basis. In case of group presentation, every member of the group should submit a short reflection on the presented report in their own language. Records of project works must be attested by external supervisor.

⇴ Marks from trimester examinations
Total of 6 marks; 3 marks from each trimester.

⇴ Classroom participation (3 marks)
Classroom participation includes attendance (1) and participation in learning (2).

(b) External Evaluation
Out of 100 marks theoretical evaluation covers 75 marks. The tool for external evaluation of theoretical learning will be a written examination. Questions for the external examination will be based on the specification grid developed by Curriculum Development Centre. Examination question paper will be developed using various levels of revised Bloom's taxonomy including remembering level, understanding level, application level and higher ability (such as analyzing, evaluating, creating).
View Class/Grade-12/XII Physics Curriculum 2076/2020.

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