Curriculum of Grade 11-XI | Chemistry | Subject Code:201 | 2076 | DOWNLOAD in PDF


Secondary Education Curriculum 2076
Subject - Chemistry
Grade/Class - XI/11
Subject Code - 201
Credit Hour - 5
Working hour - 160
Here we present you the Curriculum of Grade 11-XI of the subject Chemistry with Subject Code-201 NEB 2076/2020. Check and download in PDF file of Chemistry curriculum class 11-xi 2076/2020. 2076 New Curriculum of Grade 11-XI Chemistry Subject with subject code-201 and download it in PDF file. Enjoy!
1. Introduction

This curriculum is of grade 11 and 12 chemistry. This is designed to provide students with general understanding of the fundamental scientific laws and principles that govern the scientific phenomena in the world. It focuses to develop scientific knowledge, skills, and attitudes required at secondary level (grade 11 and 12) irrespective of what they do beyond this level, as envisioned by national goals. Understanding of scientific concepts and their application, in day to day context as well as the process of obtaining new knowledge through holistic approach of learning in the spirit of national qualification framework is emphasized in the curriculum.

This curriculum aims: to provide sufficient knowledge and skills to recognize the usefulness and limitations of laws and principles of chemistry, to develop science related attitudes such as concern for safety and efficiency, concern for accuracy and precision, objectivity, spirit of enquiry, inventiveness, appreciation of ethno-science, and willingness to use technology for effective communication, to provide opportunity for the learners who have deeper interest in the subject to delve into the more advanced contents so that the study of chemistry becomes enjoyable and satisfying to all.
The curriculum prepared in accordance with National Curriculum Framework is structured for two academic years in such a way that it incorporates the level wise competencies, grade-wise learning outcomes, scope and sequence of contents, suggested practical/project-work activities, learning facilitation process and assessment strategies so as to enhance the learning of the subject systematically.

2. Level-wise competencies

The expected competencies of this course are to:
1. think critically and creatively, communicate effectively in written and oral form and reason quantitatively
2. apply appropriate principles, concepts, theories, laws, models and patterns to interpret the findings, draw conclusion, make generalization, and to predict from chemical facts, observation and experimental data.
3. correlate old principles, concepts, theories, laws, tools, techniques; to the modern, sustainable and cost-effective skills, tools and techniques in the development of scientific attitude.
4. apply the principles and methods of science to develop the scientific skill in an industrial process to produce various chemicals in small as well as in industrial scale that are useful in our daily life and in the service of mankind.
5. explain the social, economic, environmental and other implications of chemistry and appreciate the advancement of chemistry and its applications as essential for the growth of national economy.
6. describe chemistry as a coherent and developing framework of knowledge based on fundamental theories of the structure and process of the physical world.
7. develop skills in safe handling of chemicals, taking into account of their physical and chemical properties, risk, environmental hazards, etc.
8. conduct either a research work or an innovative work in an academic year, under the guidance of teacher, using the knowledge and skills learnt.

3. Grade-wise learning Outcomes

Grade 11
Content Area: General and Physical Chemistry
1.
Foundation and Fundamentals
1.1 Recognize the importance and scope of chemistry.
1.2 Explain the terms atom, molecule, radicals, valency molecular formula and empirical formula.
1.3 Calculate percentage composition of constituent elements from molecular formula.
1.4 Define and use the terms relative atomic mass, relative molecular mass and relative formula mass.
2.
Stoichiometry
2.1 Explain Dalton’s atomic theory and its postulates.
2.2 State and explain laws of stoichiometry (law of conservation of mass, law of constant proportion, law of multiple proportion, law of reciprocal proportion and law of gaseous volume).
2.3 Explain Avogadro’s hypothesis and deduce some relationships among molecular mass with vapour density, volume of gas and number of particles.
2.4 Define mole and explain its relation with mass, volume and number of particles.
2.5 Interpret a balanced chemical equation in terms of interacting moles, representative particles, masses and volume of gases (at STP) and perform stoichiometric calculations.
2.6 Identify limiting and excess reagent in a reaction and calculate the maximum amount of products produced.
2.7 Calculate theoretical yield and percentage yield from the given actual yield.
2.8 Find empirical and molecular formula from percentage composition.
3.
Atomic Structure
3.1 Explain Rutherford atomic model and its limitations.
3.2 Summarize Bohr’s atomic theory and its importance.
3.3 Explain the origin of hydrogen spectra with the help of Bohr’s model.
3.4 Explain the general idea about Debroglie’s wave equation and probability.
3.5 Explain quantum numbers and Planck’s quantum theory.
3.6 Explain the concept and general shapes of s,p,d and f orbitals.
3.7 Use Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s rule to write the electronic configuration of the atoms and ions.
4.
Classification of elements and Periodic Table
4.1 Explain modern periodic table and its features.
4.2 Classify the elements of periodic table in different blocks and groups.
4.3 Identify the elements as metals, non-metals and metalloids.
4.4 Define the term nuclear charge and effective nuclear charge.
4.5 Explain and interpret the Periodic trend of atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativity, electron affinity and metallic characters of elements.
5.
Chemical Bonding and Shapes of Molecules
5.1 Show structure atoms and ions by Lewis dot method.
5.2 Explain the ionic bond and the properties of ionic compounds.
5.3 Explain the covalent bond, co-ordinate bond and the properties of covalent compound.
5.4 Describe the feature of sigma and Pi-bond
5.5 Describe the co-ordinate covalent compounds with some examples.
5.6 Write the lewis dot diagrams of some ionic and covalent compounds (NaCl, MgCl2, NH4Cl, Oxides of Hydrogen, Nitrogen and Phosphorous, common mineral acids).
5.7 Write the resonance structure of some covalent species.
5.8 Explain the properties of molecular and metallic solids on the basis of vanderwaal’s and metallic bonding.
5.9 Use VSEPR theory to describe the shapes of simple covalent molecules.
5.10 Describe the concept of hybridization in simple covalent molecules.
5.11 Explain the characterstics of bond in terms of dipole moment, Ionic character and bond length.
5.12 Describe the hydrogen bondng and outline the importance of hydrogen
bonding to the physical properties of substances, including ice and water (for example, boiling and melting points, viscosity, surface tension and solubility).
6.
Oxidation and Reduction
6.1 Define oxidation and reduction in terms of electronic concept.
6.2 Define oxidation number and explain the rules of assigning oxidation number.
6.3 Calculate oxidation numbers of elements in compounds and ions.
6.4 Explain redox processes in terms changes in oxidation number.
6.5 Use oxidation number change to identify oxidizing and reducing agent.
6.6 Balance the given redox reaction by oxidation number change or half equation method.
6.7 Explain the qualitative and quantitative aspects of faradays laws of electrolysis.
7.
States of Matter
7.1 List the postulates of kinetic molecular theory.
7.2 State and explain Gas laws, related equations and related numerical problems.
7.3 Explain Boyle’s law, Charle’s law, Avogadro law, combined gas law, Daltons law, Graham’s law
7.4 State and use the general gas equation PV = nRT in calculations.
7.5 Explain the meaning of Universal gas constant and its significance.
7.6 Distinguish between real gas and ideal gas.
7.7 Explain qualitatively in terms of intermolecular forces and molecular size: the conditions necessary for a gas to approach ideal behavior.
7.8 Explain the cause of deviation of real gas from the gas laws.
7.9 Explain the physical properties of liquid like Evaporation and condensation, vapour pressure and boiling, surface tension and viscosity in terms of intermolecular force and intermolecular space.
7.10 Describe Liquid crystals and their applications.
7.11 Explain about Liquid crystal and its application.
7.12 Differentiate between amorphous and crystalline solids.
7.13 Describe the properties of crystalline solid (anisotropy, allotropy, isomorphism, polymorphism, transition temperature, habit of crystal, crystal growth).
7.14 Define unit cell, crystal lattice, efflorescence, deliquescence, hygroscopy, water of crystallization with examples.
8.
Chemical equilibrium
8.1 Explain physical and chemical equilibrium in terms of reversible reaction.
8.2 Describe the meaning of dynamic nature of equilibrium with example.
8.3 Explain and deduce law of mass action.
8.4 Write equilibrium expression and equilibrium constant with significance.
8.5 Derive the relation between Kp and Kc.
8.6 State Lechateliar’s Principle and apply it to systems in equilibrium with changes in concentration pressure, temperature or the addition of catalyst.
Content Area: Inorganic Chemistry
9.
Chemistry of Non-metals
9.1 Describe and compare the chemistry of atomic and nascent hydrogen.
9.2 Explain isotopes of hydrogen and their uses, application of hydrogen as fuel, heavy water and its applications.
9.3 Explain types of oxides (acidic, basic, neutral, amphoteric, peroxide and mixed oxides).
9.4 Recognize applications of hydrogen peroxide.
9.5 State medical and industrial application of oxygen.
9.6 Describe occurrence, preparation (from oxygen), structure and test of ozone.
9.7 Describe ozone layer depletion (causes, effects and control measures) and uses of ozone.
9.8 Give reason for inertness of nitrogen and active nitrogen.
9.9 Give chemical properties of ammonia [Action with CuSO4 solution, water, FeCl3 solution, Conc. HCl, Mercurous nitrate paper, O2].
9.10 Explain applications of ammonia and explain harmful effects of ammonia.
9.11 Write the name and formula of oxy-acids of nitrogen.
9.12 Explain the chemical properties of nitric acid [HNO3] as an acid and oxidizing agent (action with zinc, magnesium, iron, copper, sulphur, carbon, SO2 and H2S).
9.13 Detect nitrate ion in laboratory.
9.14 Explain general characteristics of halogens.
9.15 Compare the methods of preparation of halogens without diagram and description.
9.16 Explain chemical properties of halogens [With water, alkali, ammonia, oxidizing character, bleaching action] and uses of halogens (Cl2, Br2 and I2).
9.17 Explain laboratory preparation of Cl2, Br2 and I2.
9.18 Show preparation of haloacids (without diagram and description) and properties (reducing strength, acidic nature and solubility).
9.19 State the uses of haloacids (HCl, HBr and HI).
9.20 Explain allotropes of carbon (crystalline and amorphous) including fullerenes (structure, general properties and uses).
9.21 State properties (reducing action, reaction with metals and nonmetals) and uses of carbon monoxide.
9.22 Name allotropes of phosphorus.
9.23 Show preparation without diagram and description, properties (basic nature, reducing nature, action with halogens and oxygen) and uses of phosphine.
9.24 Explain allotropes of sulphur (name only) and uses of sulphur.
9.25 Prepare hydrogen sulphide using Kipp's apparatus.
9.26 Explain properties (Acidic nature, reducing nature, analytical reagent) and uses of hydrogen sulphide.
9.27 Explain properties of sulphur dioxide (acidic nature, reducing nature, oxidizing nature and bleaching action) and its uses.
9.28 Explain sulphuric acid and its properties (acidic nature, oxidising nature, dehydrating nature) and its uses.
9.29 Write formula of sodium thiosulphate and uses.
10.
Chemistry of Metals
10.1 Define metallurgy and its types (hydrometallurgy, pyrometallurgy, and electrometallurgy).
10.2 Define ores, gangue or matrix, flux and slag, alloy and amalgam.
10.3 Explain general principles of extraction of metals (different processes involved in metallurgy) – concentration, calcination and roasting, smelting, carbon reduction, thermite and electrochemical reduction, refining of metals (poling and electro-refinement).
10.4 Give general characteristics of alkali metals.
10.5 State and explain extraction of sodium from Down's process.
10.6 Describe properties of sodium (action with Oxygen, water, acids nonmetals and ammonia) and uses.
10.7 Explain properties and uses of sodium hydroxide (precipitation reaction and action with carbon monoxide).
10.8 State and explain properties and uses of sodium carbonate (action with CO2, SO2, water, precipitation reactions).
10.9 Give general characteristics of alkaline earth metals.
10.10 Write molecular formula and uses of (quick lime, bleaching powder, magnesia plaster of paris and epsom salt).
10.11 Explain solubility of hydroxides, carbonates and sulphates of alkaline earth metals.
10.12 Explain stability of carbonate and nitrate of alkaline earth metals.
11.
Bio-inorganic Chemistry
11.1 Explain bio-inorganic chemistry and compare it with other branches of chemistry.
11.2 Eefine micro and macro nutrients with examples.
11.3 State and explain importance of metal ions in biological systems (ions of Na, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, Cr).
11.4 Elaborate ion pumps (sodium-potassium and sodium-glucose pump).
11.5 Explain metal toxicity (toxicity due to iron, arsenic, mercury, lead and cadmium).
Content Area: Organic Chemistry
12.
Basic concept of organic chemistry
12.1 Define organic chemistry and organic compounds.
12.2 State and explain origin of organic compounds.
12.3 Describe reasons for the separate study of organic compounds.
12.4 Explain tetra-covalency and catenation property of carbon.
12.5 Describe classification of organic compounds.
12.6 Define functional groups and homologous series with examples.
12.7 State and explain the structural formula, contracted formula and bond line structural formula.
12.8 Introduce preliminary idea of cracking and reforming, quality of gasoline, octane number, cetane number and gasoline additive.
13.
Fundamental principles
13.1 State IUPAC name of the organic compounds.
13.2 Detect N, S and halogens in organic compounds by Lassaigne's test.
13.3 Define and classify isomerism in organic compounds (structure isomerism, types of structure isomerism: chain isomerism, position, isomerism, functional isomerism, metamerism and tautomerism).
13.4 State and explain the concept of geometrical isomerism (cis&trans) & optical isomerism (d &l form).
13.5 Give preliminary idea of reaction mechanism (homolytic and herterolytic fission, electrophiles, nucleophiles and free- radicals, inductive effect: +I and –I effect, resonance effect: +R and –R effect, steric hindrance).
14.
Hydrocarbons
14.1 Define and describe saturated hydrocarbons (Alkanes).
14.2 Show preparation of alkanes from haloalkanes (Reduction and Wurtz reaction), Decarboxylation, Catalytic hydrogenation of alkene and alkyne.
14.3 Explain chemical properties of alkanes, i.e. substitution reactions (halogenation, nitration & sulphonation only), oxidation of ethane.
14.4 Define and describe unsaturated hydrocarbons (Alkenes & Alkynes).
14.5 Show preparation of alkenes by dehydration of alcohol, dehydrohalogenation and catalytic hydrogenation of alkyne.
14.6 Explain chemical properties of alkenes, i.e. addition reaction with HX (Markovnikov’s addition and peroxide effect), H2O, O3 and H2SO4 only.
14.7 Show preparation of alkynes from carbon and hydrogen, 1,2dibromoethane, chloroform/iodoform only.
14.8 Describe chemical properties of alkynes, i.e. addition reaction with (H2, HX,
H2O), acidic nature (action with Sodium, ammoniacal AgNO3 and ammoniacal Cu2Cl2).
14.9 Test unsaturation of hydrocarbons (ethene&ethyne): bromine water test and Baeyer's test.
14.10 Compare physical properties of alkane, alkene and alkyne.
14.11 Describe Kolbe's electrolysis methods for the preparation of alkane, alkene and alkynes.
15.
Aromatic Hydrocarbons
15.1 Define aromatic compounds and their characteristics.
15.2 State and explain Huckel's rule, Kekule structure of benzene, resonance and isomerism.
15.3 Show the preparation of benzene from: decarboxylation of sodium benzoate, phenol, ethyne and chlorobenzene.
15.4 Explain physical properties and chemical properties of benzene (Addition reaction: hydrogen, halogen and ozone, Electrophilic substitution reactions: orientation of benzene derivatives (o, m& p), nitration, sulphonation, halogenation Friedal-Craft's alkylation and acylation, combustion of benzene) and uses.
Content Area: Applied Chemistry
16.
Fundamentals of Applied Chemistry
16.1 Explain chemical industry and its importance.
16.2 Explain stages in producing in the development of a new product.
16.3 Explain economics of production.
16.4 Explain cash flow in the production cycle.
16.5 Describe running a chemical plant.
16.6 Design a chemical plant
16.7 Describe continuous and batch processing.
16.8 Explain environmental impact of the chemical industry.
17.
Modern Chemical Manufactures
17.1 State and show manufacture of ammonia by Haber's process (principle and flowsheet diagram).
17.2 State and show manufacture of nitric acid by Ostwald's process (principle and flow-sheet diagram).
17.3 State and show manufacture of sulphuric acid by contact process (principle and flow-sheet diagram).
17.4 State and show manufacture of sodium hydroxide by Diaphragm Cell (principle and flow-sheet diagram).
17.5 State and show manufacture of sodium carbonate by ammonia soda or Solvay process (principle and flow-sheet diagram).
17.6 Describe fertilizers (Chemical fertilizers, types of chemical fertilizers, production of urea with flow-sheet diagram).
4. Scope and Sequence of Contents (Theory)

Grade 11
Contents
TH
Content Area: General and Physical Chemistry
Unit: 1. Foundation and Fundamentals
1.1 General introduction of chemistry
1.2 Importance and scope of Chemistry
1.3 Basic concepts of chemistry (atoms, molecules, relative masses of atoms and molecules, atomic mass unit ( amu), radicals, molecular formula, empirical formula )
1.4 Percentage composition from molecular formula
2
Unit: 2. Stoichiometry
2.1 Dalton’s atomic theory and its postulates
2.2 Laws of stoichiometry
2.3 Avogadro’s law and some deductions
2.3.1 Molecular mass and vapour density
2.3.2 Molecular mass and volume of gas
2.3.3 Molecular mass and no. of particles
2.4 Mole and its relation with mass, volume and number of particles
2.5 Calculations based on mole concept
2.6 Limiting reactant and excess reactant
2.7 Theoretical yield, experimental yield and % yield
2.8 Calculation of empirical and molecular formula from % composition (Solving related numerical problems)
8
Unit: 3. Atomic Structure
3.1 Rutherford's atomic model
3.2 Limitations of Rutherford's atomic model
3.3 Postulates of Bohr’s atomic model and its application
3.4 Spectrum of hydrogen atom
3.5 Defects of Bohr’s theory
3.6 Elementary idea of quantum mechanical model: de Broglie's wave equation
3.7 Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle
3.8 Concept of probability
3.9 Quantum Numbers
3.10 Orbitals and shape of s and p orbitals only
3.11 Aufbau Principle
3.12 Pauli’s exclusion principle
3.13 Hund’s rule and electronic configurations of atoms and ions (up to atomic no. 30)
8
Unit: 4. Classification of elements and Periodic Table
4.1 Modern periodic law and modern periodic table
4.1.1 Classification of elements into different groups, periods and blocks
4.2 IUPAC classification of elements
4.3 Nuclear charge and effective nuclear charge
4.4 Periodic trend and periodicity
4.4.1 Atomic radii
4.4.2 Ionic radii
4.4.3 Ionization energy
4.4.4 Electron affinity
4.4.5 Electronegativity
4.4.6 Metallic characters (General trend and explanation only)
5
Unit: 5. Chemical Bonding and Shapes of Molecules
5.1 Valence shell, valence electron and octet theory
5.2 Ionic bond and its properties
5.3 Covalent bond and coordinate covalent bond
5.4 Properties of covalent compounds
5.5 Lewis dot structure of some common compounds of s and p block elements
5.6 Resonance
5.7 VSEPR theory and shapes of some simple molecules (BeF2, BF3, CH4, CH3Cl, PCl5, SF6, H2O,NH3,CO2,H2S, PH3)
5.8 Elementary idea of Valence Bond Theory
5.9 Hybridization involving s and p orbitals only
5.10 Bond characteristics:
5.10.1 Bond length
5.10.2 Ionic character
5.10.3 Dipole moment
5.11 Vander Waal’s force and molecular solids
5.12 Hydrogen bonding and its application
5.13 Metallic bonding and properties of metallic solids
9
Unit: 6. Oxidation and Reduction
6.1 General and electronic concept of oxidation and reduction
6.2 Oxidation number and rules for assigning oxidation number
6.3 Balancing redox reactions by oxidation number and ion-electron (half reaction) method
6.4 Electrolysis
6.4.1 Qualitative aspect
6.4.2 Quantitative aspect(Faradays laws of electrolysis)
5
Unit: 7. States of Matter
7.1 Gaseous state
7.1.1 Kinetic theory of gas and its postulates
7.1.2 Gas laws
7.1.2.1 Boyle’s law and Charles' law
7.1.2.2 Avogadro's law
7.1.2.3 Combined gas equation
7.1.2.4 Dalton's law of partial pressure
7.1.2.5 Graham's law of diffusion
7.1.3 Ideal gas and ideal gas equation
7.1.4 Universal gas constant and its significance
7.1.5 Deviation of real gas from ideality (Solving related numerical problems based on gas laws)
7.2 Liquid state
7.2.1 Physical properties of liquids
7.2.1.1 Evaporation and condensation
7.2.1.2 Vapour pressure and boiling point
7.2.1.3 Surface tension and viscosity (qualitative idea only)
7.2.2 Liquid crystals and their applications
7.3 Solid state
7.3.1 Types of solids
7.3.2 Amorphous and crystalline solids
7.3.3 Efflorescent, Deliquescent and Hygroscopic solids
7.3.4 Crystallization and crystal growth
7.3.5 Water of crystallization
7.3.6 Introduction to unit crystal lattice and unit cell
8
Unit: 8. Chemical equilibrium
8.1 Physical and chemical equilibrium
8.2 Dynamic nature of chemical equilibrium
8.3 Law of mass action
8.4 Expression for equilibrium constant and its importance
8.5 Relationship between Kp and Kc
8.6 Le Chatelier’s Principle (Numericals not required)
3
Content Area: Inorganic Chemistry
Unit: 9. Chemistry of Non-metals
9.1 Hydrogen
9.1.1 Chemistry of atomic and nascent hydrogen
9.1.2 Isotopes of hydrogen and their uses
9.1.3 Application of hydrogen as fuel
9.1.4 Heavy water and its applications
9.2 Allotropes of Oxygen
9.2.1 Definition of allotropy and examples
9.2.2 Oxygen: Types of oxides (acidic, basic, neutral, amphoteric, peroxide and mixed oxides)
9.2.3 Applications of hydrogen peroxide
9.2.4 Medical and industrial application of oxygen
9.3 Ozone
9.3.1 Occurrence
9.3.2 Preparation of ozone from oxygen
9.3.3 Structure of ozone
9.3.4 Test for ozone
9.3.5 Ozone layer depletion (causes, effects and control measures)
9.3.6 Uses of ozone
4
9.4 Nitrogen
9.4.1 Reason for inertness of nitrogen and active nitrogen
9.4.2 Chemical properties of ammonia [Action with CuSO4 solution, water, FeCl3 solution, Conc. HCl, Mercurous nitrate paper, O2 ]
9.4.3 Applications of ammonia
9.4.4 Harmful effects of ammonia
9.4.5 Oxy-acids of nitrogen (name and formula)
9.4.6 Chemical properties of nitric acid [HNO3 as an acid and oxidizing agent (action with zinc,
magnesium, iron, copper, sulphur, carbon, SO2 and H2S)
9.4.7 Ring test for nitrate ion
5
9.5 Halogens
9.5.1 General characteristics of halogens
9.5.2 Comparative study on preparation (no diagram and description is required),
9.5.2.1 Chemical properties [with water, alkali, ammonia, oxidizing character, bleaching action] and uses of halogens (Cl2, Br2 and I2)
9.5.3 Test for Cl2, Br2 and I2
9.5.4 Comparative study on preparation (no diagram and description is required), properties ( reducing strength, acidic nature and solubility) and uses of haloacids (HCl, HBr and HI)
5
9.6 Carbon
9.6.1 Allotropes of carbon (crystalline and amorphous) including fullerenes (structure, general properties and uses only)
9.6.2 Properties (reducing action, reaction with metals and nonmetals) and uses of carbon monoxide
9.7 Phosphorus
9.7.1 Allotropes of phosphorus (name only)
9.7.2 Preparation (no diagram and description is required), properties ( basic nature ,reducing nature , action with halogens and oxygen) and uses of phosphine
3
9.8 Sulphur
9.8.1 Allotropes of sulphur (name only) and uses of sulphur
9.8.2 Hydrogen sulphide (preparation from Kipp's apparatus with diagram,) properties (Acidic
nature, reducing nature, analytical reagent) and uses
9.8.3 Sulphur dioxide its properties (acidic nature, reducing nature, oxidising nature and bleaching action) and uses
9.8.4 Sulphuric acid and its properties (acidic nature, oxidising nature, dehydrating nature) and uses
9.8.5 Sodium thiosulphate (formula and uses)
5
Unit: 10 Chemistry of Metals
10.1 Metals and Metallurgical Principles
10.1.1 Definition of metallurgy and its types (hydrometallurgy, pyrometallurgy, electrometallurgy)
10.1.2 Introduction of ores
10.1.3 Gangue or matrix, flux and slag, alloy and amalgam
10.1.4 General principles of extraction of metals (different processes involved in metallurgy) – concentration, calcination and roasting, smelting, carbon reduction, thermite and electrochemical reduction
10.1.5 Refining of metals (poling and electro-refinement)
5
10.2 Alkali Metals
10.2.1 General characteristics of alkali metals
10.2.2 Sodium [extraction from Down's process, properties (action with Oxygen, water, acids nonmetals and ammonia) and uses]
10.2.3 Properties (precipitation reaction and action with carbon monooxide) and uses of sodium hydroxide
10.2.4 Properties (action with CO2, SO2, water, precipitation reactions) and uses of sodium carbonate
10.3 Alkaline Earth Metals
10.3.1 General characteristics of alkaline earth metals
10.3.2 Molecular formula and uses of (quick lime, bleaching powder, magnesia, plaster of paris and epsom salt)
10.3.3 Solubility of hydroxides, carbonates and sulphates of alkaline earth metals (general trend
with explanation)
10.3.4 Stability of carbonate and nitrate of alkaline earth metals (general trend with explanation)
5
Unit: 11. Bio-inorganic Chemistry
11. Introduction to Bio-inorganic Chemistry
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Micro and macro nutrients
11.3 Importance of metal ions in biological systems (ions of Na, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, Cr)
11.4 Ion pumps (sodium-potassium and sodium-glucose pump)
11.5 Metal toxicity (toxicity due to iron, arsenic, mercury, lead and cadmium)
3
Content Area: Organic Chemistry
Unit: 12 Basic Concept of Organic Chemistry
12.1 Introduction to organic chemistry and organic compounds
12.2 Reasons for the separate study of organic compounds from inorganic compounds
12.3 Tetra-covalency and catenation properties of carbon
12.4 Classification of organic compounds
12.5 Alkyl groups, functional groups and homologous series
12.6 Idea of structural formula, contracted formula and bond line structural formula
12.7 Preliminary idea of cracking and reforming, quality of gasoline, octane number, cetane number and gasoline additive
6
Unit: 13 Fundamental Principles of Organic Chemistry
13.1 IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Compounds (upto chain having 6- carbon atoms)
13.2 Qualitative analysis of organic compounds (detection of N, S and halogens by Lassaigne's test)
13.3 Isomerism in Organic Compounds
13.4 Definition and classification of isomerism
13.5 Structural isomerism and its types: chain isomerism, position isomerism, functional isomerism, metamerism and tautomerism
13.6 Concept of geometrical isomerism (cis & trans) & optical isomerism (d & l form)
13.7 Preliminary Idea of Reaction Mechanism
13.7.1 Homolytic and heterolytic fission
13.7.2 Electrophiles, nucleophiles and free- radicals
13.7.3 Inductive effect: +I and –I effect
13.7.4 Resonance effect: +R and –R effect
10
Unit: 14. Hydrocarbons
14.1 Saturated Hydrocarbons (Alkanes)
14.1.1 Alkanes: Preparation from haloalkanes (Reduction and Wurtz reaction), Decarboxylation, Catalytic hydrogenation of alkene and alkyne
14.1.2 Chemical properties: Substitution reactions (halogenation, nitration & sulphonation only), oxidation of ethane
14.2 Unsaturated hydrocarbons (Alkenes & Alkynes)
14.2.1 Alkenes: Preparation by Dehydration of alcohol, Dehydrohalogenation, Catalytic hydrogenation of alkyne
14.2.1.1 Chemical properties: Addition reaction with HX (Markovnikov’s addition and peroxide effect), H2O, O3, H2SO4 only
14.3 Alkynes: Preparation from carbon and hydrogen, 1,2 dibromoethane, chloroform/iodoform only
14.3.1 Chemical properties: Addition reaction with (H2, HX, H2O), Acidic nature (action with Sodium, ammoniacal AgNO3 and ammoniacal Cu2Cl2)
14.4 Test of unsaturation (ethene & ethyne): bromine water test and Baeyer's test
14.5 Comparative studies of physical properties of alkane, alkene and alkyne
14.6 Kolbe's electrolysis methods for the preparation of alkane, alkene and alkynes
8
Unit: 15. Aromatic Hydrocarbons
15.1 Introduction and characteristics of aromatic compounds
15.2 Huckel's rule of aromaticity
15.3 Kekule structure of benzene
15.4 Resonance and isomerism
15.5 Preparation of benzene from decarboxylation of sodium benzoate, phenol, and ethyne only
15.6 Physical properties of benzene
15.7 Chemical properties of benzene: Addition reaction: hydrogen, halogen, Electrophilic substitution reactions: orientation of benzene derivatives (o, m & p), nitration, sulphonation, halogenations, Friedal-Craft's reaction (alkylation and acylation), combustion of benzene ( free combustion only) and uses
6
Content Area: Applied Chemistry
Unit: 16 Fundamentals of Applied Chemistry
16.1 Fundamentals of Applied Chemistry
16.1.2 Chemical industry and its importance
16.1.3 Stages in producing a new product
16.1.4 Economics of production
16.1.5 Cash flow in the production cycle
16.1.6 Running a chemical plant
16.1.7 Designing a chemical plant
16.1.7 Continuous and batch processing
16.1.8 Environmental impact of the chemical industry
4
Unit: 17 Modern Chemical Manufactures
17.1 Modern Chemical Manufactures (principle and flow sheet diagram only)
17.1.1 Manufacture of ammonia by Haber's process,
17.1.2 Manufacture of nitric acid by Ostwald's process,
17.1.3 Manufacture of sulphuric acid by contact process,
17.1.4 Manufacture of sodium hydroxide by Diaphragm Cell
17.1.5 Manufacture of sodium carbonate by ammonia soda or Solvay process
17.2 Fertilizers (Chemical fertilizers, types of chemical fertilizers, production of urea with flow-sheet diagram)
11
128
5. Practical Portion (32 Teaching hours)

The practical work that students do during their course is aimed at providing them learning opportunities to accomplish competency of the curriculum as well as reinforcing their learning of the theoretical subject content. This part of the curriculum focuses more on skill development than knowledge building. Students must spend lots of time for working with chemical materials. Observations and investigations can enhance student learning. Project work may consist of activities designed to demonstrate the concepts and ideas through collecting, processing, analyzing and communicating data.

Students should learn to,
 collect and identify
 preserve
 dissect
 draw figure, chart, preparing models, slides etc
 handle the equipment, instruments and laboratory handling with experimentation
 draw conclusion

Students should perform at least 10 experiments, either listed below or designed by teacher, so that no more than three experiments come from the same categories mentioned below.

a) List of Experiments for grade 11

A. Experiments based on laboratory techniques:

1. To separate the insoluble component in pure and dry state from the given mixture of soluble and insoluble solids (NaCl, sand and camphor).
2. To separate a mixture of two soluble solids by fractional crystallization (KNO3 + NaCl).
3. To prepare a saturated solution of impure salt and obtain the pure crystal of the same salt by crystallization.
4. To separate the component of a mixture of two insoluble solids (one being soluble in dil. acids).

5. To determine the number of water of crystallization of hydrated crystals.
6. To determine the volume occupied by 1 mole of hydrogen gas at NTP. (Wt of Mg = ...…g).
7. To obtain pure water from given sample of impure water (Distillation).

B. Experiments to study the different types of reactions (Neutralization, Precipitation, Redox reaction and Electrolysis):

8. To carry out the following chemical reactions, represent them in molecular as well as ionic forms and write the colour of the products formed:
a. Ferrous sulphate solution + ammonia solution
b. Ferric chloride solution + ammonia solution
c. Copper sulphate solution + sodium hydroxide solution (heat the mixture)
d. Copper sulphate solution + ammonia solution (add ammonia drop by drop at first and then excess)
e. Ferric chloride solution + potassium ferrocyanide solution
f. Ferrous sulphate solution + potassium ferricyanide solution
g. Copper sulphate solution + potassium iodide solution
h. Potassium chromate + silver nitrate solution
i. Barium chloride solution + silver nitrate solution
j. Dilute sulphuric acid + barium chloride solution
9. To perform precipitation reaction of BaCl2and H2SO4 and obtain solid BaSO4.
10. To neutralize sodium hydroxide with hydrochloric acid solution and recover the crystal of sodium chloride.
11. To test the ferrous ions in the given aqueous solution and oxidise it to ferric ion, (Ferrous and Ferric ion) (Redox Reaction)
12. To study the process of electrolysis and electroplating.

C. Experiments on quantitative analysis:

13. To determine the weight of given piece of Mg by hydrogen displacement method.
14. To determine the solubility of the given soluble solid at laboratory temperature.
15. To determine the relative surface tension of unknown liquid by drop count method.

16. To study the rate of flow of liquid through Ostwald’s viscometer and determine the relative viscosity of unknown liquid.
17. To determine the molecular weight of given metal carbonate (M2CO3).

D. Experiments on preparation of gas and study of properties:

18. To prepare and collect hydrogen gas and study the following properties;
a. Solubility with water, colour, odour;
b. Litmus test;
c. Burning match stick test; and
d. Reducing properties of nascent hydrogen.

19. To prepare and collect ammonia gas and investigate the following properties:
a. Solubility with water, colour and odour;
b. Litmus test;
c. Action with copper sulphate solution phenolphathalein solution
d. Action with mercurous nitrate paper.

20. To prepare carbon dioxide gas and investigate the following properties:
a. Solubility, colour and odour;
b. Litmus paper test;
c. Lime water test; and
d. Action with burning magnesium ribbon.
21. To study the properties of hydrogen sulphide (physical, analytical and reducing).

22. To study the following properties of sulphuric acid:
a. Solubility with water;
b. Litmus paper test;
c. Precipitating reaction; and
d. Dehydrating reaction.

E. Experiments on qualitative analysis:

23. To detect the basic radical of the given salt by dry way and the acid radical by dry and wet ways in its aqueous solution.
Basic radicals: Zn++, Al+++, Mg++, Ca++ ,
Acid radicals: CO3
--, SO4
--, NO3
-, Br-, I-, Cl-

24. To detect the presence of Cl-, SO4
- - and CO3
- - in the given sample of tap water and
distilled water.

b) List of Sample project works for grade 11

1. Observe in your surroundings (kitchen, school, shop, etc.) and make a possible list of organic and inorganic compounds. How are they different? Why is it necessary to study them separately, put your argument?
2. Study of the methods of purification of water.
3. Testing the hardness of drinking water from different sources and the study of cause of hardness.
4. Study of the acidity of different samples of the tea leaves.
5. Preparation of molecular models using stick and clay.
6. Study of adulteration of food materials.

7. Study of application and adverse effects of pesticides on human health.
8. Study of use and adverse effects of plastics on environment.
9. Analysis of soil samples. (elaboration need pH, humus content)
10. Investigation on corrosion and rusting on iron.
11. Comparison of ground and surface water quality of a given place-colour, odour, pH, conductivity, turbidity etc.
12. Design and development of water filter (Charcoal filter with sand can be designed and water quality can be monitored).

Note: Students are free to choose any topic listed in this curriculum or a topic suggested by teacher provided that it is within the theoretical contents of the syllabus. However, repetition of topic should be discouraged.

6. Learning Facilitation Process

Students should be facilitated to learn rather than just accumulation of information. Teacher plays vital role for delivering subject matters although others' role is also important. Student centered teaching-learning process is highly emphasized. Students are supposed to adopt multiple pathway
of learning, such as online search, field visit, library work, laboratory work, individual and group work, research work etc. with the support of teacher. Self-study by students is highly encouraged and learning should not be confined to the scope of curriculum. Teacher should keep in mind intra and inter-disciplinary approach to teaching and learning, as opposed to compartmentalization of knowledge. Supportive role of parents/guardians in creating conducive environment for promoting the spirit of inquiry and creativity in students' learning is anticipated.

During the delivery process of science teaching in grade 11 and 12, basically following three approaches will be adopted;

a) Conceptual/Theoretical Approach

Possible theoretical methods of delivery may include the following;
a. lecture
b. interaction
c. question answer
d. demonstrations
e. ICT based instructions
f. cooperative learning
g. group discussions (satellite learning group, peer group, small and large group)
h. debate
i. seminar presentation
j. Journal publishing
k. daily assignment

b) Practical/Application/Experimental approach

Practical work is the integral part of the learning science. The process of lab based practical work comprises as;
a. familiarity with objective of practical work

b. familiarity with materials, chemicals, apparatus
c. familiarity with lab process (safety, working modality etc.)
d. conduction of practical work (systematically following the given instruction)
e. analysis, interpretation and drawing conclusion

c) Project work Approach

Project work is an integral part of the science learning. Students should be involved in project work to foster self-learning of students in the both theoretical and practical contents. Students will complete project work to have practical idea through learning by doing approach and able to connect the theory into the real world context. It is regarded as method/ process of learning rather than content itself. So use of project work method to facilitate any appropriate contents of this curriculum is highly encouraged.

In this approach student will conduct at least one research work, or an innovative work under the guidance of teacher, using the knowledge and skills learnt. It could include any of the followings;
(a) Mini research
(b) Survey
(c) Model construction
(d) Paper based work
(e) Study of ethno-science

General process of research work embraces the following steps;
a. Understanding the objective of the research
b. Planning and designing
c. Collecting information
d. Analysis and interpretation
e. Reporting /communicating (presentation, via visual aids, written report, graphical etc.)

General process of innovative work embraces the following steps;
a. Identification of innovative task (either assigned by teacher or proposed by student)
b. Planning
c. Performing the task
d. Presentation of the work
e. Record keeping of the work

Students are free to choose any topic listed in this curriculum or a topic suggested by teacher provided that it is within the theoretical contents of the Curriculum. However, repetition of topic should be discouraged.

Learning process matrix

Knowledge and understanding
Scientific skills and process
Values, attitudes and application to daily life
a) Scientific phenomenon, facts, definition, principles, theory, concepts and new discoveries
a) Basic and integrated scientific process skills
a) Responsible
b) Scientific vocabulary, glossary and terminology
Process
b) Investigation
b) Spending time for
investigation
c) Scientific tools, devises,
instruments apparatus
c) Creative thinking
d) Techniques of uses of
scientific instruments with
safety
d) problem solving
e) Scientific and
technological applications
Basic Science Process Skills includes,
1. Observing: using senses to gather information about an object or event. It is description of what was actually perceived.
2. Measuring: comparing unknown physical quantity with known quantity (standard unit) of same type.
3. Inferring: formulating assumptions or possible explanations based upon observations.
4. Classifying: grouping or ordering objects or events into categories based upon characteristics or defined criteria.

5. Predicting: guessing the most likely outcome of a future event based upon a pattern of evidence.
6. Communicating: using words, symbols, or graphics to describe an object, action or event.

Integrated Science Process Skills includes,

1. Formulating hypotheses: determination of the proposed solutions or expected outcomes for experiments. These proposed solutions to a problem must be testable.
2. Identifying of variables: Identification of the changeable factors (independent and dependent variables) that can affect an experiment.
3. Defining variables operationally: explaining how to measure a variable in an experiment.
4. Describing relationships between variables: explaining relationships between variables in an experiment such as between the independent and dependent variables.
5. Designing investigations: designing an experiment by identifying materials and describing appropriate steps in a procedure to test a hypothesis.
6. Experimenting: carrying out an experiment by carefully following directions of the procedure so the results can be verified by repeating the procedure several times.
7. Acquiring data: collecting qualitative and quantitative data as observations and measurements.
8. Organizing data in tables and graphs: presenting collected data in tables and graphs.

9. Analyzing investigations and their data: interpreting data, identifying errors, evaluating the hypothesis, formulating conclusions, and recommending further testing where necessary.
10. Understanding cause and effect relationships: understanding what caused what to happen and why.
11. Formulating models: recognizing patterns in data and making comparisons to familiar objects or ideas.

7. Student Assessment

Evaluation is an integral part of learning process. Both formative and summative modes of evaluation are emphasized. Formative evaluation will be conducted so as to provide regular feedback for students, teachers and parents/guardians about how student learning is. Class tests, unit tests, oral question-answer, home assignment etc, are some ways of formative evaluation.

There will be separate evaluation of theoretical and practical learning. Summative evaluation embraces theoretical examination, practical examination and evaluation of research work or innovative work.

(a) Internal Evaluation

Out of 100 full marks Internal evaluation covers 25 marks. Internal evaluation consists of Practical work (16 marks), (b) Marks from trimester examinations (6 marks), and (c) Classroom participation (3 marks)

 Practical Activities

Practical works and project works should be based on list of activities mentioned in this curriculum or designed by teacher. Mark distribution for practical work and project work will be as follows:

S.N.
Criteria
Elaboration of Criteria
Marks
1
Laboratory experiment
Correctness of apparatus setup/preparation
2
Observation/Experimentation
2
Tabulation
1
Data Processing and Analysis
1
Conclusion (Value of constants or prediction with justification)
1
Handling of errors/precaution
1
2
Viva-voce
Understanding of objective of the experiment
1
Skills of the handling of apparatus in use
1
Overall impression
1
3
Practical work records and attendance
Records (number and quality)
2
4
Project work
Reports (background, objective, methodology, finding, conclusion)
2
Presentation
1

TOTAL
16
Note:
(i) Practical examination will be conducted in the presence of internal and external supervisors. Evaluation of laboratory experiment will focus both the product of work and skills competencies of student in using apparatus.
(ii) Project work assessment is the internal assessment of reports and presentation of their project works either individually or group basis. In case of group presentation, every member of the group should submit a short reflection on the presented report in their own language. Records of project works must be attested by external supervisor.

 Marks from trimester examinations
Total of 6 marks, 3 marks from each trimester.

 Classroom participation (3 marks)
Classroom participation includes attendance (1) and participation in learning (2).

(b) External Evaluation
Out of 100 marks theoretical evaluation covers 75 marks. The tool for external evaluation of theoretical learning will be a written examination. Questions for the external examination will be based on the specification grid developed by Curriculum Development Centre. Examination question paper will be developed using various levels of revised Bloom's taxonomy including remembering level, understanding level, application level and higher ability (such as analyzing, evaluating, creating).
View Class/Grade-11/XI Chemistry Curriculum 2076/2020.

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