Curriculum of Grade 12-XII | Chemistry | Subject Code:202 | 2076 | DOWNLOAD in PDF


Secondary Education Curriculum 2076
Subject - Chemistry
Grade/Class - XII/12
Subject Code - 202
Credit Hour - 5
Working hour - 160
Here we present you the Curriculum of Grade 12-XII of the subject Chemistry with Subject Code-202 NEB 2076/2020. Check and download in PDF file of Chemistry curriculum class 12-xii 2076/2020. 2076 New Curriculum of Grade 12-XII Chemistry Subject with subject code-202 and download it in PDF file. Enjoy!
1. Introduction

This curriculum is of grade 11 and 12 chemistry. This is designed to provide students with general understanding of the fundamental scientific laws and principles that govern the scientific phenomena in the world. It focuses to develop scientific knowledge, skills, and attitudes required at secondary level (grade 11 and 12) irrespective of what they do beyond this level, as envisioned by national goals. Understanding of scientific concepts and their application, in day to day context as well as the process of obtaining new knowledge through holistic approach of learning in the spirit of national qualification framework is emphasized in the curriculum.
This curriculum aims: to provide sufficient knowledge and skills to recognize the usefulness and limitations of laws and principles of chemistry, to develop science related attitudes such as concern for safety and efficiency, concern for accuracy and precision, objectivity, spirit of enquiry, inventiveness, appreciation of ethno-science, and willingness to use technology for effective communication, to provide opportunity for the learners who have deeper interest in the subject to delve into the more advanced contents so that the study of chemistry becomes enjoyable and satisfying to all.

The curriculum prepared in accordance with National Curriculum Framework is structured for two academic years in such a way that it incorporates the level wise competencies, grade-wise learning outcomes, scope and sequence of contents, suggested practical/project-work activities, learning facilitation process and assessment strategies so as to enhance the learning of the subject systematically.

2. Level-wise competencies

The expected competencies of this course are to:
1. think critically and creatively, communicate effectively in written and oral form and reason quantitatively

2. apply appropriate principles, concepts, theories, laws, models and patterns to interpret the findings, draw conclusion, make generalization, and to predict from chemical facts, observation and experimental data.
3. correlate old principles, concepts, theories, laws, tools, techniques; to the modern, sustainable and cost-effective skills, tools and techniques in the development of scientific attitude.
4. apply the principles and methods of science to develop the scientific skill in an industrial process to produce various chemicals in small as well as in industrial scale that are useful in our daily life and in the service of mankind.
5. explain the social, economic, environmental and other implications of chemistry and appreciate the advancement of chemistry and its applications as essential for the growth of national economy.
6. describe chemistry as a coherent and developing framework of knowledge based on fundamental theories of the structure and process of the physical world.
7. develop skills in safe handling of chemicals, taking into account of their physical and chemical properties, risk, environmental hazards, etc.
8. conduct either a research work or an innovative work in an academic year, under the guidance of teacher, using the knowledge and skills learnt.

3. Grade-wise learning Outcomes

Grade 12
Content Area: General and Physical Chemistry
1.
Volumetric Analysis
1.1 Define and explain the terms volumetric and gravimetric analysis.
1.2 Express the concentration of solutions in terms of percentage, g/l, molarity, molality, normality, ppm, ppb
1.3 Define and calculate the equivalent weight of (elements, acids, bases, salts, oxidising and reducing agents).
1.4 Express the concentration of solution in terms of normality.
1.5 Explain and apply the concept of law of equivalence in chemical calculation.
1.6 Define and explain primary and secondary standard substance.
1.7 Explain different types of titration and their applications.
2.
Iconic Equilibrium
2.1 Explain the limitations of Arrhenius concepts of acids and bases.
2.2 Define Bronsted and Lowry concepts for acids and bases.
2.3 Define conjugate acids and conjugate base.
2.4 Identify conjugate acid-base pairs of Bronsted acid and base.
2.5 Define and explain Lewis acids and bases.
2.6 Use the extent of ionization and dissociation constant of acid (ka) and base (kb).
2.7 Explain ionization constant of water and calculate pH and pOH in aqueous medium using Kw values.
2.8 Show understanding of, and use, the concept of solubility product Ksp.
2.9 Calculate Ksp from concentrations and vice versa.
2.10 Show understanding of the common ion effect.
2.11 Describe the application of solubility product principle and common ion effect in precipitation reactions.
2.12 Define a Buffer and show with equations how a Buffer system works.
2.13 Explain the choice of suitable indicators for acid-base titrations and describe the changes in pH during acid-base titrations.
2.14 Define and differentiate different types of salts (simple salts, double salts, complex salt, acidic salts, basic salts and neutral salts).
2.15 Explain hydrolysis of salts (salts of strong acid and strong base, salts of weak acid and strong base and salts of weak base and strong acid).
3.
Chemical Kinetics
3.1 Define chemical kinetics.
3.2 Explain and use the terms rate of reaction, rate equation, rate constant.
3.3 Explain qualitatively factors affecting rate of reaction.
3.4 Use collision theory to explain how the rate of chemical reaction is influenced by temperature, concentration and particle size.
3.5 Explain the meaning of the term activation energy and activated complex.
3.6 Derive and explain integrated rate equation and half life for zero, and first order reaction.
3.7 Construct and use rate equations calculating an initial rate using concentration data.
3.8 Explain the significance of Arrhenius equation and solve the related problems.
3.9 Explain and use the terms catalyst and catalysis (homogenous, heterogeneous).
3.10 Describe enzyme as biological catalyst.
3.11 Explain the role of catalyst in the reaction mechanism.
3.12 Solve related numerical problems based on rate, rate constant and order of zero and first order reactions.
4.
Thermodynamics
4.1 Define thermodynamics.
4.2 Explain the energy change in chemical reactions.
4.3 Define the terms internal energy and state function.
4.4 State and explain first law of thermodynamics.
4.5 State and explain enthalpy and enthalpy changes in various process (enthalpy of solution, enthalpy of formation enthalpy of combustion and enthalpy of reaction).
4.6 Explain endothermic and exothermic process with the help of energy profile diagram.
4.7 State laws of thermo-chemistry and solve numerical problems related to Hess law.
4.8 Define the term entropy and spontaneity.
4.9 State and explain second law of thermodynamics.
4.10 Define standard Gibbs free energy change of reaction by means of the equation G = H– TS.
4.11 Calculate G for a reaction using the equation G = H– TS.
4.12 State whether a reaction or process will be spontaneous by using the sign of G.
4.13 Explain the relationship between G and equilibrium constant.
5.
Electrochemistry
5.1 Define the terms: standard electrode (redox) potential.
5.2 Explain about standard hydrogen electrode and calomel electrodes.
5.3 Calculate a standard cell potential by combining two standard electrode potential.
5.4 Describe the applications of electrochemical series.
5.5 Define and explain standard cell potential with reference to voltaic cell: Zn-Cu cell, Ag-Cu cell
5.6 Use standard cell potentials to: explain/deduce the direction of electron flow in a simple cell and predict the feasibility of a reaction.
5.7 Explain the relationship between cell potential and free energy change.
5.8 State the possible advantages of developing other types of cell, e.g. the hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell and lithiumion, rechargeable batteries.
Content Area: Inorganic Chemistry
6.
Transition Metals
6.1 Explain characteristics of transition metals.
6.2 Explain oxidation states of transition metals.
6.3 Describe complex ions and metal complexes.
6.4 Show shapes of complex ions.
6.5 Describe d-orbitals in complex ions (simple explanation by crystal field theory) for octahedral complex.
6.6 Explain reasons for the colour of transition metal compounds.
6.7 Explain catalytic properties of transition metals.
7.
Studies of Heavy Metals
7.1 Explain occurrence of heavy metals.
7.2 Describe extraction of heavy metals.
7.3 Describe properties (with air, acids, aqueous ammonia and metal ions) and uses of copper.
7.4 Explain chemistry (preparation, properties and uses) of blue vitriol.
7.5 Write formula and uses red and black oxide of copper.
7.6 Describe properties (with air, acid, alkali, displacement reaction) and uses of zinc.
7.7 Explain chemistry (preparation, properties and uses) of white vitriol.
7.8 State properties of mercury.
7.9 Explain chemistry (preparation, properties and uses) of calomel and corrosive sublimate.
7.10 Explain properties and uses of iron.
7.11 Explain manufacture of steel by basic oxygen method and open hearth process.
7.12 Explain corrosion of iron and its prevention.
7.13 Explain preparation and uses of silver chloride and silver nitrate.
Content Area: Organic Chemistry
8.
Haloalkanes
8.1 Describe briefly the nomenclature, isomerism and classification of monohaloalkanes.
8.2 Show the preparation of monohaloalkanes from alkanes, alkenes and alcohols.
8.3 State physical properties of monohaloalkanes.
8.4 Describe chemical properties of haloalkanes: substitution reactions SN1 and SN2 reactions (basic concept only).
8.5 Show the formation of alcohol, nitrile, amine, ether, thioether, carbylamines, nitrite and nitro alkane using haloalkanes.
8.6 Describe elimination reaction (dehydrohalogenation- Saytzeff's rule), Reduction reactions, Wurtz reaction.
8.7 Show the preparation of trichloromethane from ethanol and propanone.
8.8 Explain the chemical properties of trichloromethane: oxidation, reduction, action on silver powder, conc. nitric acid, propanone, and aqueous alkali.
9.
Haloarenes
9.1 Describe briefly the nomenclature and isomerism of haloarenes.
9.2 Show the preparation of chlorobenzene from benzene and benzene diazonium chloride.
9.3 State physical properties of haloarens.
9.4 Describe low reactivity of haloarenes as compared to haloalkanes in term of nucleophilic substitution reaction.
9.5 Explain the chemical propertiesof haloarens: reduction of chlorobenzene, electrophilic
substitution reactions, action with Na ( Fittig and Wurtz- Fittig reaction) and action with chloral.
9.6 Describe uses of haloarenes.
10.
Alcohols
10.1 Describe briefly the nomenclature, isomerism and classification of monohydric alcohol.
10.2 Distinguish primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols by Victor Meyer's Method.
10.3 Show the preparation of monohydric alcohols from Haloalkane, primary amines and esters.
10.4 Explain the industrial preparation alcohol from: oxo process, hydroboration-oxidation of ethane & fermentation of sugar.
10.5 Define absolute alcohol, power alcohol, denatured alcohol (methylated spirit), rectified spirit; and alcoholic beverage.
10.6 State physical properties monohydric alcohols.
10.7 Explain chemical properties of monohydric alcoholswith HX, PX3, PCl5, and SOCl2. Action with reactive metals like Na, K and Li. Dehydration of alcohols. Oxidation of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohol with mild oxidizing agents like acidified KMnO4 or K2Cr2O7. Catalytic dehydrogenation of 1⁰ and 2⁰ alcohol and dehydration of 3⁰ alcohol, Esterification reaction and test of ethanol.
11.
Phenols
11.1 Describe briefly the nomenclature of phenol.
11.2 Show the preparation of phenol from chlorobenzene, Diazonium salt and benzene sulphonic acid
11.3 State physical properties of phenol.
11.4 Describe acidic nature of phenol (comparison with alcohol and water).
11.5 Explain the chemical properties of phenol with NH3, Zn, Na, benzene diazonium chloride and phthalic anhydride, Acylation reaction, Kolbe's reaction and Reimer-Tiemann's reaction Electrophilic substitution (nitration, sulphonation, brominaiton and Friedal-Craft's alkylation).
11.6 Describe test of phenol (FeCl3 test, aq. Bromine test &Libermann test).
11.7 State important uses of phenol.
12.
Ethers
12.1 Describe briefly the nomenclature, classification and isomerism of ethers.
12.2 Show the preparation of aliphatic and aromatic ethers from Williamson's synthesis.
12.3 State physical properties of ether.
12.4 Explain chemical properties of ethoxyethane with HI , Conc. HCl, Conc. H2SO4, air and Cl2
12.5 State important uses of ethers.
13.
Aldehydes and Ketones
(A) Aliphatic aldehydes and ketones
13.1 Describe briefly the nomenclature and isomerism of aliphatic aldehydes and ketones.
13.2 Show the preparation of aldehydes and ketones from dehydrogenation, oxidation of alcohol, ozonolysis of alkenes, acid chloride, gem dihaloalkane and catalytic hydration of alkynes
13.3 State physical properties of aldehydes and ketones.
13.4 Describe structure and nature of carbonyl group.
13.5 Explain chemical properties of aliphatic aldehydes and ketones, i.e. addition of H2, HCN and NaHSO3. action of aldehyde and ketone with ammonia derivatives, i.e. NH2OH, NH2-NH2, phenyl hydrazine and semicarbazide. Aldol condensation, Cannizzaro's reaction, Clemmensen'sreduction. and Wolf- Kishner reduction. Action with PCl5 and action with LiAlH4 .Action of methanal with ammonia and phenol.
13.6 Distinguish between aliphatic aldehydes and ketones by using 2,4- DNP reagent, Tollen's reagent and Fehling's solution.
13.7 Define formalin and state its uses.
(B) Aromatic aldehydes and Ketones
13.8 Show the preparation of benzaldehyde from toluene and acetophenone from benzene.
13.9 Explain chemical properties of benzaldehyde, i.e. Perkin condensation, Benzoin condensation, Cannizzaro's reaction and electrophilic substitution reaction.
14.
Carboxylic Acid and its Derivatives
(A) Aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids
14.1 Describe briefly the nomenclature and isomerism of aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids.
14.2 Show the preparation of monocarboxylic acids from: aldehydes, nitriles, dicarboxylic acid, sodium alkoxide and trihaloalkanes.
14.3 Show the preparation of benzoic acid from alkyl benzene.
14.4 State physical properties of monocarboxylic acids.
14.5 Explain chemical properties of aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids: Action with alkalies, metal oxides, metal carbonates, metal bicarbonates, PCl3, LiAlH4 and dehydration of carboxylic acid. Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky reaction. Electrophilic substitution reaction of benzoic acid (bromination, nitration and sulphonation).
14.6 Explain effect of constituents on the acidic strength of carboxylic acid.
14.7 Describe abnormal behaviour of methanoic acid.
(B) Derivatives of Carboxylic acids (acid halides, amides, esters and anhydrides)
14.8 Show the preparation of acid derivatives from carboxylic acid.
14.9 Explain the comparative physical properties of acid derivatives.
14.10 Explain the comparative chemical properties of acid derivatives (hydrolysis, ammonolysis, amines- RNH2), alcoholysis, and reduction only. Claisen condensation and hofmannbromamide reaction.
14.11 Describe amphoteric nature of amide and relative reactivity of acid derivatives.
15.
Nitro Compounds
15.1 Describe briefly the nomenclature and isomerism of nitro compounds.
15.2 Show the preparation from haloalkane and alkane.
15.3 State physical properties of nitro compounds.
15.4 Explain chemical properties of nitro compounds, i.e. reduction.
15.5 Show preparation of nitrobenzene from benzene.
15.6 State physical properties of nitrobenzene.
15.7 Explain chemical properties of nitrobenzene, i.e. reduction in different media and electrophilic substitution reactions (nitration, sulphonation & bromination).
15.8 State important uses of nitrocompounds.
16.
Amines
(A) Aliphatic amines
16.1 Describe briefly the nomenclature, classification and isomerism of amines.
16.2 Show the separation of primary, secondary and tertiary amines by Hoffmann's method.
16.3 Show preparation of primary amines from haloalkane , nitriles, nitroalkanes and amides.
16.4 State physical properties of aliphatic amines.
16.5 Explain chemical properties of aliphatic amines, i.e. basicity of amines, comparative study of basic nature of 10, 20 and 30 amines. Reaction of primary amines with chloroform, conc. HCl, R-X, RCOX and nitrous acid (NaNO2 / HCl) and test of 10, 20 and 30 amines (nitrous acid test).
(B) Aromatic amine (Aniline)
16.6 Show preparation of aniline from nitrobenzene and phenol.
16.7 State physical properties of aromatic amine.
16.8 Explain chemical properties of aromatic amine, i.e. basicity of aniline, comparison of basic nature of aniline with aliphatic amines and ammonia, alkylation, acylation, diazotization, carbylamines, coupling reaction and electrophilic substitution (Nitration sulphonation and bromination).
16.9 State important uses of aniline.
17.
Organometallic Compounds
17.1 Describe briefly the general formula and examples of organolithium, organocopper and organocadmium compounds.
17.2 Explain the nature of Metal-Carbon bond.
17.3 Define Grignard reagent.
17.4 Show the preparation Grignard reagent (using haloalkane and haloarene).
17.5 Explain reaction of Grignard reagent with water, aldehydes and ketones (preparation of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols), carbon dioxide, HCN, RCN, ester and acid chloride.
Content Area: Applied Chemistry
18.
Chemistry in the Service of Mankind
18.1 Explain addition and condensation polymers.
18.2 Explain elastomers and fibres.
18.3 Describe natural and synthetic polymers.
18.4 Explain some synthetic polymers (polythene, PVC, Teflon, polystyrene, nylon and bakelite).
18.5 Explain types of dyes on the basis of structure and method of application.
18.6 Describe characteristics of drugs.
18.7 Differentiate natural and synthetic drugs.
18.8 Classify some common drugs.
18.9 Be aware of adverse effect of drug addiction.
18.10 Explain insecticides, herbicides and fungicides.
19.
Cement
19.1 Explain introduction and raw materials for cement production.
19.2 Give main steps in cement production (crushing and grinding, strong heating and final grinding).
19.3 Explain OPC and PPC cement.
19.4 Explain Portland cement process with flow-sheet diagram.
19.5 Explain cement Industry in Nepal.
20.
Paper and Pulp
20.1 Explain raw materials, sources of raw materials and stages in production of paper.
20.2 Give flow-sheet diagram for paper production.
20.3 Describe quality of paper.
21.
Nuclear Chemistry and Applications of Radioactivity
21.1 Describe natural and artificial radioactivity.
21.2 Give units of radioactivity.
21.3 Explain nuclear reactions.
21.4 Distinguish between nuclear fission and fusion reactions.
21.5 Describe nuclear power and nuclear weapons.
21.6 Explain industrial uses of radioactivity.
21.7 State the medical uses of radioactivity.
21.8 Explain radiocarbon dating.
21.9 Describe harmful effects of nuclear radiations.
4. Scope and Sequence of Contents (Theory)

Grade 12
Contents
TH
Content Area: General and Physical Chemistry
Unit-1. Volumetric Analysis
1.1 Introduction to gravimetric analysis, volumetric analysis and equivalent weight
1.2 Relationship between equivalent weight, atomic weight and valency
1.3 Equivalent weight of compounds (acid, base, salt, oxidizing and reducing agents)
1.4 Concentration of solution and its units in terms of : Percentage, g/L , molarity, molality, normality and formality, ppm and ppb
1.5 Primary and secondary standard substances
1.6 Law of equivalence and normality equation
1.7 Titration and its types: Acid-base titration, redox titration ( related numerical problems)
8
Unit-2. Ionic Equilibrium Introduction to Acids and Bases
2.1. Limitation of Arrhenius concepts of acids and bases
2.2 Bronsted –Lowry definition of acids and bases
2.3 Relative strength of acids and bases
2.4 Conjugate acid –base pairs
2.5 Lewis definition of acids and bases
2.6 Ionization of weak electrolyte (Ostwald's dilution law)
2.7 Ionic product of water(Kw)
2.8 Dissociation constant of acid and base, (Ka& Kb)
2.9 Concept of pKa and pKb
2.10 pH value: pH of strong and weak acids, pH of strong and weak bases
2.11 Solubility and solubility product principle
2.12 Common Ion effect
2.13 Application of solubility product principle and common ion effect in precipitation reactions
2.14 Buffer solution and its application
2.15 Indicators and selection of indicators in acid base titration
2.16 Types of salts: Acidic salts, basic salts, simple salts, complex salts (introduction and examples)
2.17 Hydrolysis of salts
2.17.1 Salts of strong acid and strong base
2.17.2 Salts of weak acid and strong base
2.17.3 Salts of weak base and strong acid (solving related numerical problems)
10
Unit-3. Chemical Kinetics
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Rate of reactions: Average and instantaneous rate of reactions
3.3 Rate law and its expressions
3.4 Rate constant and its unit and significance
3.5 Order and molecularity
3.6 Integrated rate equation for zero and first order reaction
3.7 Half-life of zero and first order reactions
3.8 Collision theory, concept of activation energy and activated complex
3.9 Factors affecting rate of reactions: Effect of concentration, temperature (Arrhenius Equation) and effect of catalyst (energy profile diagram)
3.10 Catalysis and types of catalysis: homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzyme catalysis (solving related numerical problems based on rate, rate constant and order of zero and first order reactions)
7
Unit-4. Thermodynamics
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Energy in chemical reactions
4.3 Internal energy
4.4 First law of thermodynamics
4.5 Enthalpy and enthalpy changes: Endothermic and exothermic processes)
4.6 Enthalpy of reaction, enthalpy of solution, enthalpy of formation, enthalpy of combustion
4.7 Laws of thermochemistry (Laplace Law and Hess’s law)
4.8 Entropy and spontaneity
4.9 Second law of thermodynamics
4.10 Gibbs' free energy and prediction of spontaneity
4.11 Relationship between ΔG and equilibrium constant (Solving related numerical problems)
8
Unit-5. Electrochemistry
5.1 Electrode potential and standard electrode potential
5.2 Types of electrodes: Standard hydrogen electrode and calomel electrodes
5.3 Electrochemical series and its applications
5.4 Voltaic cell: Zn-Cu cell, Ag- Cu cell
5.5 Cell potential and standard cell potential
5.6 Relationship between cell potential and free energy
5.7 Commercial batteries and fuel cells (hydrogen/oxygen)
7
Content Area: Inorganic Chemistry
Unit-6. Transition Metals
6.1 Introduction
6.1.1 Characteristics of transition metals
6.1.2 Oxidation states of transition metals
6.1.3 Complex ions and metal complexes
6.1.4 Shapes of complex ions
6.1.5 d-orbitals in complex ions (simple explanation by crystal field theory) for octahedral complex
6.1.6 Reasons for the colour of transition metal compounds
6.1.7 Catalytic properties of transition metals
5
Unit-7. Studies of Heavy Metals
7.1 Copper
7.1.1 Occurrence and extraction of copper from copper pyrite
7.1.2 Properties (with air, acids, aqueous ammonia and metal ions) and uses of copper
7.1.3 Chemistry (preparation, properties and uses) of blue vitriol
7.1.4 Other compounds of copper (red oxide and black oxide of copper) formula and uses only
7.2 Zinc
7.2.1 Occurrence and extraction of zinc from zinc blende
7.2.2 Properties (with air, acid, alkali, displacement reaction) and uses of zinc
7.2.3 Chemistry (preparation, properties and uses) of white vitriol
7.3 Mercury
7.3.1 Occurrence and extraction of mercury from cinnabar
7.3.2 Properties of mercury
7.3.3 Chemistry (preparation, properties and uses) of calomel and corrosive sublimate
7.4 Iron
7.4.1 Occurrence and extraction of iron
7.4.2 Properties and uses of iron
7.4.3 Manufacture of steel by Basic Oxygen Method and Open Hearth Process
7.4.4 Corrosion of iron and its prevention
7.5 Silver
7.5.1 Occurrence and extraction of silver by cyanide process
7.5.2 Preparation and uses of silver chloride and silver nitrate
15
Content Area: Organic Chemistry
Unit-8. Haloalkanes
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Nomenclature, isomerism and classification of monohaloalkanes
8.3 Preparation of monohaloalkanes from alkanes, alkenes and alcohols
8.4 Physical properties of monohaloalkanes
8.5 Chemical properties, substitution reactions SN1 and SN2 reactions (basic concept only)
8.6 Formation of alcohol, nitrile, amine, ether, thioether, carbylamines, nitrite and nitro alkane using haloalkanes
8.7 Elimination reaction (dehydrohalogenation- Saytzeff's rule), Reduction reactions, Wurtz
reaction
8.8 Preparation of trichloromethane from ethanol and propanone
8.9 Chemical properties of trichloromethane: oxidation, reduction, action on silver powder, conc. nitric acid, propanone, and aqueous alkali
8
Unit-9. Haloarenes
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Nomenclature and isomerism of haloarenes
9.3 Preparation of chlorobenzene from benzene and benzene diazonium chloride
9.4 Physical properties
9.5 Chemical properties
9.5.1 Low reactivity of haloarenes as compared to haloalkanes in term of nucleophilic substitution reaction
9.5.2 Reduction of chlorobenzene
9.5.3 Electrophilic substitution reactions
9.5.4 Action with Na (Fittig and Wurtz- Fittig reaction)
9.5.5 Action with chloral
9.6 Uses of haloarenes
3
Unit-10. Alcohols
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Nomenclature, isomerism and classification of monohydric alcohol
10.3 Distinction of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols by Victor Meyer's Method
10.4 Preparation of monohydric alcohols from Haloalkane, primary amines, and esters
10.5 Industrial preparation alcohol from: oxo process, hydroboration-oxidation of ethene & fermentation of sugar
10.6 Definition of common terms: Absolute alcohol, power alcohol, denatured alcohol (methylated spirit), rectified spirit; alcoholic beverage
10.7 Physical properties monohydric alcohols
10.8 Chemical properties of monohydric alcohols
10.8.1 Reaction with HX, PX3, PCl5, SOCl2
10.8.2 Action with reactive metals like Na, K, Li
10.8.3 Dehydration of alcohols
10.8.4 Oxidation of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohol with mild oxidizing agents like acidified KMnO4 or K2Cr2O7
10.8.5 Catalyic dehydrogenation of 1⁰ and 2⁰ alcohol and dehydration of 3⁰ alcohol
10.8.6 Esterification reaction
10.8.7 Test of ethanol
7
Unit-11. Phenols
11.1 Introduction and nomenclature
11.2 Preparation of phenol from i. chlorobenzene ii. Diazonium salt and iii. benzene sulphonic acid
11.3 Physical properties of phenol
11.4 Chemical properties
11.4.1 Acidic nature of phenol (comparison with alcohol and water)
11.4.2 Action with NH3, Zn, Na, benzene diazonium chloride and phthalic anhydride
11.4.3 Acylation reaction, Kolbe's reaction, Reimer-Tiemann's reaction
11.4.4 Electrophilic substitution: nitration, sulphonation, brominaiton and Friedal-Craft's alkylation
11.5 Test of phenol: (FeCl3 test, aq. Bromine test & Libermann test)
11.6 Uses of phenol
4
Unit-12. Ethers
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Nomenclature, classification and isomerism of ethers
12.3 Preparation of aliphatic and aromatic ethers from Williamson's synthesis
12.4 Physical properties of ether
12.5 Chemical properties of ethoxyethane: action with HI , Conc. HCl, Conc. H2SO4, air and Cl2
12.6 Uses of ethers
2
Unit-13. Aldehydes and Ketones
13.1 Aliphatic aldehydes and ketones
13.1.1 Introduction, nomenclature and isomerism
13.1.2 Preparation of aldehydes and ketones from: Dehydrogenation and oxidation of alcohol,
Ozonolysis of alkenes, Acid chloride, Gem dihaloalkane, Catalytic hydration of alkynes
13.1.3 Physical properties of aldehydes and ketones
13.1.4 Chemical properties
13.1.4.1 Structure and nature of carbonyl group
13.1.4.2 Distinction between aldehyde and ketones by using 2,4- DNP reagent, Tollen's reagent, Fehling's solution 13.1.4.3 Addition reaction: addition of H2, HCN and NaHSO3
13.1.4.4 Action of aldehyde and ketone with ammonia derivatives; NH2OH, NH2-NH2, phenyl hydrazine, semicarbazide,
13.1.4.5 Aldol condensation
13.1.4.6 Cannizzaro's reaction
13.1.4.7 Clemmensen's reduction
13.1.4.8 Wolf-Kishner reduction
13.1.4.9 Action with PCl5 and action with LiAlH4
13.1.4.10 Action of methanal with ammonia and phenol
13.1.5 Formalin and its uses
13.2 Aromatic aldehydes and Ketones
13.2.1 Preparation of benzaldehyde from toluene and acetophenone from benzene
13.2.2 Properties of benzaldehyde
13.2.2.1 Perkin condensation
13.2.2.2 Benzoin condensation
13.2.2.3 Cannizzaro's reaction
13.2.2.4 Electrophilic substitution reaction
10
Unit-14. Carboxylic Acid and its Derivaties
14.1 Aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids
14.1.1 Introduction, nomenclature and isomerism
14.1.2 Preparation of monocarboxylic acids from: aldehydes, nitriles, dicarboxylic acid, sodium alkoxide and trihaloalkanes
14.1.3 Preparation of benzoic acid from alkyl benzene
14.1.4 Physical properties of monocarboxylic acids
14.1.5 Chemical properties: Action with alkalies, metal oxides, metal carbonates, metal bicarbonates, PCl3, LiAlH4 and dehydration of carboxylic acid
14.1.6 Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky reaction
14.1.7 Electrophilic substitution reaction of benzoic acid - bromination, nitration and sulphonation)
14.1.8 Effect of constituents on the acidic strength of carboxylic acid
14.1.9 Abnormal behaviour of methanoic acid
14.2 Derivatives of Carboxylic acids (acid halides, amides, esters and anhydrides)
14.2.1 Preparation of acid derivatives from carboxylic acid
14.2.2 Comparative physical properties of acid derivatives
14.2.3 Comparative chemical properties of acid derivatives (hydrolysis, ammonolysis, amines (RNH2), alcoholysis, and reduction only)
14.2.4 Claisen condensation
14.2.5 Hofmann bromamide reaction
14.2.6 Amphoteric nature of amide
14.2.7 Relative reactivity of acid derivatives
9
Unit-15. Nitro Compounds
15.1 Nitroalkanes
15.1.1 Introduction, nomenclature and isomerism
15.1.2 Preparation from haloalkane and alkane
15.1.3 Physical properties
15.1.4 Chemical properties: Reduction
15.2 Nitrobenzene
15.2.1 Preparation from benzene
15.2.2 Physical properties
15.2.3 Chemical properties
15.2.4 Reduction in different media
15.2.5 Electrophilic substitution reactions (nitration, sulphonation & bromination)
15.2.6 Uses of nitro-compounds
3
Unit-16. Amines
16.1 Aliphatic amines
16.1.1 Introduction, nomenclature, classification and isomerism
16.1.2 Separation of primary, secondary and tertiary amines by Hoffmann's method
16.1.3 Preparation of primary amines from haloalkane, nitriles, nitroalkanes and amides
16.1.4 Physical properties
16.1.5 Chemical properties: basicity of amines, comparative study of basic nature of 10, 20 and 30 amines
16.1.6 Reaction of primary amines with chloroform, conc. HCl, R-X, RCOX and nitrous acid (NaNO2 /HCl)
16.1.7 Test of 10, 20 and 30 amines (nitrous acid test)
16.2 Aromatic amine (Aniline)
16.2.1 Preparation of aniline from nitrobenzene, phenol
16.2.2 Physical properties
16.2.3 Chemical properties: basicity of aniline, comparison of basic nature of aniline with aliphatic amines and ammonia, alkylation, acylation, diazotization, carbylamine and coupling reaction, electrophilic substitution: Nitration sulphonation and bromination
16.2.4 Uses of aniline
7
Unit-17. Organometallic Compounds
17.1 Introduction, general formula and examples of organolithium, organocopper and organocadmium compounds
17.2 Nature of Metal-Carbon bond
17.3 Grignard reagent
17.3.1 Preparation (using haloalkane and haloarene)
17.3.2 Reaction of Grignard reagent with water, aldehydes and ketones ( preparation of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols), carbon dioxide, HCN, RCN, ester and acid chloride
2
Content Area: Applied Chemistry
Unit-18. Chemistry in the service of mankind
18.1 Polymers
18.1.1 Addition and condensation Polymers
18.1.2 Elastomers and fibres
18.1.3 Natural and synthetic polymers
18.1.4 Some synthetic polymers (polythene, PVC, Teflon, polystyrene, nylon and bakelite
18.2 Dyes
18.2.1 Introduction
18.2.2 Types of dyes on the basis of structure and method of application
18.3 Drugs
18.3.1 Characteristics of drugs
18.3.2 Natural and synthetic drugs
18.3.3 Classification of some common drugs
18.3.4 Habit forming drugs and drug addiction
18.4 Pesticides
18.4.1 Introduction to insecticides, herbicides and fungicides
4
Unit-19. Cement
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Raw materials for cement production
19.3 Main steps in cement production (crushing and grinding, strong heating and final grinding)
19.4 Types of cement- OPC and PPC
19.5 Portland cement process with flow-sheet diagram
19.6 Cement Industry in Nepal
4
Unit-20. Paper and Pulp
20.1 Introduction
20.2 Raw materials
20.3 Sources of raw materials
20.4 Stages in production of paper
20.5 Flow-sheet diagram for paper production
20.6 Quality of paper
3
Unit-21 Nuclear Chemistry and Applications of Radioactivity
21.1 Natural and artificial radioactivity
21.2 Units of radioactivity
21.3 Nuclear reactions
21.4 Nuclear fission and fusion reactions
21.5 Nuclear power and nuclear weapons
21.6 Industrial uses of radioactivity
21.7 Medical uses of radioactivity
21.8 Radiocarbon dating
21.9 Harmful effects of nuclear radiations
2
128
5. Practical Portion (32 Teaching hours)

The practical work that students do during their course is aimed at providing them learning opportunities to accomplish competency of the curriculum as well as reinforcing their learning of the theoretical subject content. This part of the curriculum focuses more on skill development than knowledge building. Students must spend lots of time for working with chemical materials. Observations and investigations can enhance student learning. Project work may consist of activities designed to demonstrate the concepts and ideas through collecting, processing, analyzing and communicating data.

Students should learn to,
 collect and identify
 preserve
 dissect
 draw figure, chart, preparing models, slides etc
 handle the equipment, instruments and laboratory handling with experimentation
 draw conclusion

Students should perform at least 10 experiments, either listed below or designed by teacher, so that no more than three experiments come from the same categories mentioned below.

a) List of experiments for grade 12

A. Experiments based on recovery and preparation of salt
1. To recover blue vitriol crystals from the given mixture of copper sulphate and sodium chloride.
2. To recover CaCO3 from the mixture of CaCO3 and MgCO3 (dolomite).
3. To obtain hydrated calcium sulphate from the given marble chips.

B. Experiments based on volumetric analysis (Titration)
4. To prepare primary standard solution of Na2CO3 and standardize the given acid solution (HCl) by the standard solution.
5. To determine the strength of approximate NaOH solution with the help of standard decinormal solution of HCl supplied.
6. To determine the strength of bench sulphuric acid (H2SO4) with the help of standard NaOH or Na2CO3 solution and express the concentration in (i) normality (ii) molarity (iii) gm/litre (iv) percentage (Double titration).

7. To standardize the given approximate KMnO4 solution with the help of primary standard oxalic solution (Redox titration).

C. Experiments based on organic chemistry:
8. To detect foreign elements present in a given organic compounds (N, S and X).
9. To identify the functional group present in the organic compounds (-OH, -COOH, – CHO, –CO–,–NH2), and –COO–)
10. To test the presence of:
a) Saturated or unsaturated fats b) Carbohydrates
c) Proteins d) Phenol

D. Experiments based on thermochemistry:
11. To determine the enthalpy of neutralization of a strong acid and strong base.
12. To determine the molar enthalpy change of ammonium chloride solution

E. Experiments based on chemical kinetics:
13. To study the kinetics of the reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid.
14. To study the kinetics of the reaction between propanone and iodine

F. Experiments based on salt analysis:
15. To perform complete salt analysis to detect the acid and basic radicals present in the given inorganic salt (at least three salt samples).

G. Experiments based on applied and analytical Chemistry:
16. To separate the components of ink by paper chromatography and determine the Rf values.
17. To determine the contents of acetic acid in the given volume of vinegar by titrimetric analysis.
18. To prepare some common compounds:
a. Potash alum b. Iodoform c. Fehling's solution d. Tollen's reagent
19. To isolate hippuric acid from given sample of cow urine.
20. To demonstrate the pH value of unknown sample solutions.

b) List of sample project works for grade 12

1. Observe brick industry/chemical industry/old smooky cooking kitchen/use of chemical fertilizers/use of insecticides/ vehicular smokes, etc. and draw the conclusion of environmental impact of the chemical pollution.
2. Visit nearby paper industry if possible or consult e-media and observe the raw materials required, steps of manufacturing and quality endorsement of paper. Also, prepare a complete report.
3. Visit nearby cement industry if possible or consult e-media and observe the raw materials required, steps of manufacturing and quality endorsement of cement. Also, prepare a complete report.
4. Collect different brands of OPC and PPC cement and observe their setting duration.

5. Collect different types of plastics (or synthetic polymers) and study the effect of heat on them.
6. Extraction of essential oils from selected plants using Clevenger’s apparatus.
7. Preparation of soap using coconut oil or any vegetable oil.
8. Study of quantity of casein present in different samples of milk.
9. Study of formation of rust in the iron nail in various conditions.
10. Study of the different types of food preservatives used in different food available in the market.
11. Study of common food adulterants in fat, oil, butter, sugar, turmeric powder, chilli powder and pepper.
12. Investigation on the foaming capacity of different washing soaps and the effect of addition of sodium carbonate on them.
13. Study the acidic nature of alcohol and phenol.
14. Study the distinction between aliphatic aldehyde, aromatic aldehyde and aliphatic ketone.
15. Detect the presence of acetic acid in vinegar.
16. Study the nitrous acid test of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
17. Study the different types of dyes.
18. Study the positive and negative effect of drugs.
19. Study the setting of cement.
20. Study the presence of pesticides residues in fruits and vegetables.
21. Test of protein in various foods.

Note: Students are free to choose any topic listed in this curriculum or a topic suggested by teacher provided that it is within the theoretical contents of the syllabus. However, repetition of topic should be discouraged.

6. Learning Facilitation Process

Students should be facilitated to learn rather than just accumulation of information. Teacher plays vital role for delivering subject matters although others' role is also important. Student centered teaching-learning process is highly emphasized. Students are supposed to adopt multiple pathway
of learning, such as online search, field visit, library work, laboratory work, individual and group work, research work etc. with the support of teacher. Self-study by students is highly encouraged and learning should not be confined to the scope of curriculum. Teacher should keep in mind intra and inter-disciplinary approach to teaching and learning, as opposed to compartmentalization of knowledge. Supportive role of parents/guardians in creating conducive environment for promoting the spirit of inquiry and creativity in students' learning is anticipated.

During the delivery process of science teaching in grade 11 and 12, basically following three approaches will be adopted;

a) Conceptual/Theoretical Approach

Possible theoretical methods of delivery may include the following;
a. lecture
b. interaction
c. question answer
d. demonstrations
e. ICT based instructions
f. cooperative learning

g. group discussions (satellite learning group, peer group, small and large group)
h. debate
i. seminar presentation
j. Journal publishing
k. daily assignment

b) Practical/Application/Experimental approach

Practical work is the integral part of the learning science. The process of lab based practical work comprises as;
a. familiarity with objective of practical work
b. familiarity with materials, chemicals, apparatus
c. familiarity with lab process (safety, working modality etc.)
d. conduction of practical work (systematically following the given instruction)
e. analysis, interpretation and drawing conclusion

c) Project work Approach

Project work is an integral part of the science learning. Students should be involved in project work to foster self-learning of students in the both theoretical and practical contents. Students will complete project work to have practical idea through learning by doing approach and able to connect the theory into the real world context. It is regarded as method/ process of learning rather than content itself. So use of project work method to facilitate any appropriate contents of this curriculum is highly encouraged.

In this approach student will conduct at least one research work, or an innovative work under the guidance of teacher, using the knowledge and skills learnt. It could include any of the followings;
(a) Mini research
(b) Survey

(c) Model construction
(d) Paper based work
(e) Study of ethno-science

General process of research work embraces the following steps;
a. Understanding the objective of the research
b. Planning and designing
c. Collecting information
d. Analysis and interpretation
e. Reporting /communicating (presentation, via visual aids, written report, graphical etc.)

General process of innovative work embraces the following steps;
a. Identification of innovative task (either assigned by teacher or proposed by student)
b. Planning
c. Performing the task
d. Presentation of the work
e. Record keeping of the work

Students are free to choose any topic listed in this curriculum or a topic suggested by teacher provided that it is within the theoretical contents of the Curriculum. However, repetition of topic should be discouraged.

Learning process matrix

Knowledge and understanding
Scientific skills and process
Values, attitudes and application to daily life
a) Scientific phenomenon, facts, definition, principles, theory, concepts and new discoveries
a) Basic and integrated scientific process skills
a) Responsible
b) Scientific vocabulary, glossary and terminology
Process
b) Investigation
b) Spending time for
investigation
c) Scientific tools, devises,
instruments apparatus
c) Creative thinking
d) Techniques of uses of
scientific instruments with
safety
d) problem solving
e) Scientific and
technological applications
Basic Science Process Skills includes,
1. Observing: using senses to gather information about an object or event. It is description of what was actually perceived.
2. Measuring: comparing unknown physical quantity with known quantity (standard unit) of same type.
3. Inferring: formulating assumptions or possible explanations based upon observations.
4. Classifying: grouping or ordering objects or events into categories based upon characteristics or defined criteria.

5. Predicting: guessing the most likely outcome of a future event based upon a pattern of evidence.
6. Communicating: using words, symbols, or graphics to describe an object, action or event.

Integrated Science Process Skills includes,

1. Formulating hypotheses: determination of the proposed solutions or expected outcomes for experiments. These proposed solutions to a problem must be testable.
2. Identifying of variables: Identification of the changeable factors (independent and dependent variables) that can affect an experiment.
3. Defining variables operationally: explaining how to measure a variable in an experiment.
4. Describing relationships between variables: explaining relationships between variables in an experiment such as between the independent and dependent variables.
5. Designing investigations: designing an experiment by identifying materials and describing appropriate steps in a procedure to test a hypothesis.
6. Experimenting: carrying out an experiment by carefully following directions of the procedure so the results can be verified by repeating the procedure several times.
7. Acquiring data: collecting qualitative and quantitative data as observations and measurements.
8. Organizing data in tables and graphs: presenting collected data in tables and graphs.

9. Analyzing investigations and their data: interpreting data, identifying errors, evaluating the hypothesis, formulating conclusions, and recommending further testing where necessary.
10. Understanding cause and effect relationships: understanding what caused what to happen and why.
11. Formulating models: recognizing patterns in data and making comparisons to familiar objects or ideas.

7. Student Assessment

Evaluation is an integral part of learning process. Both formative and summative modes of evaluation are emphasized. Formative evaluation will be conducted so as to provide regular feedback for students, teachers and parents/guardians about how student learning is. Class tests, unit tests, oral question-answer, home assignment etc, are some ways of formative evaluation.

There will be separate evaluation of theoretical and practical learning. Summative evaluation embraces theoretical examination, practical examination and evaluation of research work or innovative work.

(a) Internal Evaluation

Out of 100 full marks Internal evaluation covers 25 marks. Internal evaluation consists of Practical work (16 marks), (b) Marks from trimester examinations (6 marks), and (c) Classroom participation (3 marks)

 Practical Activities

Practical works and project works should be based on list of activities mentioned in this curriculum or designed by teacher. Mark distribution for practical work and project work will be as follows:

S.N.
Criteria
Elaboration of Criteria
Marks
1
Laboratory experiment
Correctness of apparatus setup/preparation
2
Observation/Experimentation
2
Tabulation
1
Data Processing and Analysis
1
Conclusion (Value of constants or prediction with justification)
1
Handling of errors/precaution
1
2
Viva-voce
Understanding of objective of the experiment
1
Skills of the handling of apparatus in use
1
Overall impression
1
3
Practical work records and attendance
Records (number and quality)
2
4
Project work
Reports (background, objective, methodology, finding, conclusion)
2
Presentation
1

TOTAL
16
Note:
(i) Practical examination will be conducted in the presence of internal and external supervisors. Evaluation of laboratory experiment will focus both the product of work and skills competencies of student in using apparatus.
(ii) Project work assessment is the internal assessment of reports and presentation of their project works either individually or group basis. In case of group presentation, every member of the group should submit a short reflection on the presented report in their own language. Records of project works must be attested by external supervisor.

 Marks from trimester examinations
Total of 6 marks, 3 marks from each trimester.

 Classroom participation (3 marks)
Classroom participation includes attendance (1) and participation in learning (2).

(b) External Evaluation
Out of 100 marks theoretical evaluation covers 75 marks. The tool for external evaluation of theoretical learning will be a written examination. Questions for the external examination will be based on the specification grid developed by Curriculum Development Centre. Examination question paper will be developed using various levels of revised Bloom's taxonomy including remembering level, understanding level, application level and higher ability (such as analyzing, evaluating, creating).
View Class/Grade-12/XII Chemistry Curriculum 2076/2020.

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