Curriculum of Grade 11-XI | Biology (Botany+Zoology) | Subject Code: Bio. 301 | 2076 | DOWNLOAD in PDF

Download Biology (Botany+Zoology) New curriculum of grade-xi-11 subject code-bio 301 2076 NEB
DR Gurung
Secondary Education Curriculum 2076
Subject - Biology

Grade/Class - XI/11
Subject Code - Bio.301
Credit Hour - 5
Working hour - 160
Here we present you the Curriculum of Grade 11-XI of the subject Biology with Subject Code-Bio.301 NEB 2076/2020. Check and download in PDF file of Biology curriculum class 11-xi 2076/2020. 2076 New Curriculum of Grade 11-XI Biology Subject with subject code-Bio.301 and download it in PDF file. Enjoy!

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1. Introduction

This curriculum presumes that the students joining grade 11 and 12 science stream come with diverse aspirations, some may continue to higher level studies in specific areas of science, others may join technical and vocational areas or even other streams. The curriculum is designed to provide students with general understanding of the fundamental scientific laws and principles that govern the scientific phenomena in the world. It focuses to develop scientific knowledge, skill competences and attitudes required at secondary level (grade 11 and 12) irrespective of what they do beyond this level, as envisioned by national goals. Understanding of scientific concepts and their application, in day to day context as well as the process of obtaining new knowledge through holistic approach of learning in the spirit of national qualification framework is emphasized in the curriculum.

In particular, the curriculum aims to provide sufficient knowledge and understanding of science for all learners to recognize the usefulness, and limitations, of laws and principles of biology, and use them in daily lives providing a sound foundation for students who wish to study biology or related professional or vocational courses in higher education. It helps to strengthen science process skills that are relevant to the study and application of biological science in daily life. It also provides opportunity for the learners who have deeper interest in the subject to delve into the more advanced contents so that the study of biology becomes enjoyable and satisfying to all. Moreover, it helps the students to build up capacity to identify, gather, manipulate and process information in the context of scientific endeavors including field investigations in various formats on biological issues.

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The curriculum prepared in accordance with National Curriculum Framework is structured for two academic years in such a way that it incorporates the level-wise competencies, grade-wise leaning outcomes, scope and sequence of contents, suggested practical/project activities, learning facilitation process and assessment strategies so as to enhance the learning on the subject systematically.

2. Level-wise competencies

In completion of this course, students are expected to demonstrate the following competencies:

1. relate natural and biological phenomena in the scientific manner of knowledge, understanding and investigating problems pertaining to the living world
2. use scientific instruments, apparatus and methods to collect, evaluate and communicate information accurately and precisely with biological reasoning
3. use their practical and problem-solving skills in different disciplines of biology, including those in medical, veterinary, food, agriculture, biotechnology, biosecurity, quarantine, conservation and eco-tourism and so on
4. carryout simple experiment, simple scientific research on issues related to biological phenomena
5. apply biological concepts as well as general science knowledge and skills for the wise use of the available natural resources to promote care for the environment, indigenous knowledge, social values and ethics and overall development
6. develop new biotechnological concepts and use of technology in living world.

3. Grade-wise learning Outcomes

Grade 11
Part A: Botany
Biomolecules & Cell Biology (15)
1.1 Describe the structure and functions of biomolecules.
1.2 Differentiate between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell.
1.3 Explain structure and functions of cell organelles
1.4 Analyze the cell cycle and types of cell division with significances.
1.5 Demonstrate an understanding of the basic processes of cellular biology.
Floral Diversity (30)
2.1 Demonstrate an understanding of the diversity of living organisms in terms of the principles of taxonomy and phylogeny.
2.2 Investigate, through laboratory and/or field activities or through simulations, the principles of scientific classification using appropriate sampling and classification techniques;
2.3 Explain three domains of life, system of classification and status of flora of Nepal.
2.4 Classify fungi upto different classes.
2.5 Explain the structure and reproduction of Mucor and yeast.
2.6 Distinguish between poisonous and nonpoisonous mushroom
2.7 Describe the economic importance of fungi.
2.8 Explain characteristic features and economic importance of lichen.
2.9 Classify algae into different groups with basic characters
2.10 Explain the structure and reproduction of Spirogyra.
2.11 Describe economic importance of algae.
2.12 Classify bryophytes into different groups with basic characters
2.13 Explain the structure and reproduction of Marchantia.
2.14 Describe economic importance of bryophytes.
2.15 Explain introduction and characteristics features of pteridophytes.
2.16 Explain the structure and reproduction of Dryopteris.
2.17 Describe economic importance of pteridophytes.
2.18 Explain introduction and characteristics features of Gymnosperms
2.19 Explain the structure and reproduction of Pinus.
2.20 Describe economic importance of gymnosperm.
2.21 Describe the morphology of root, stem, leaves, inflorescences, flowers and fruit
2.22 Define taxonomy and classification system
2.23 Describe the families -Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, and Liliaceae in taxonomic term with economic importance.
2.24 Analyze the effects of various human activities on the diversity of plants.
Introductory Microbiology (5)
3.1 Explain structure, mode of nutrition and growth of bacteria as well as cyanobacteria (blue green algae).
3.2 Explain introduction, structure and importance of virus.
3.3 Demonstrate an understanding of the diversity of microorganisms (Bacteria and Virus) and the relationships that exist between them.
3.4 Assess the effects of microorganisms (Bacteria and Virus) in the environment, and analyze ethical issues related to their use in biotechnology;
Ecology (11)
4.1 Define ecology, ecological factors and structural and functional concept of ecosystem.
4.2 Explain the concept of food chain, food web and ecological pyramid.
4.3 Explain the term trophic level, productivity.
4.4 Explain the process of bio-geochemical cycle and succession.
4.5 Define adaptation, hydrophytes and xerophytes.
4.6 Define greenhouse effect, ozone layer, acid rain and biological invasion
4.7 Explain and illustrate with examples how living systems interact with the biotic and abiotic environment
4.8 Analyse and investigate the roles of plants in ecosystems, and assess the impact of human activities on the balance of nature within those ecosystems;
Vegetation (3)
5.1 Describe the vegetation types of Nepal
5.2 Illustrate the concept of In-situ (protected areas) and Ex-situ (botanical garden, seed bank) conservation with examples
5.3 Demonstrate an understanding of the structure and physiology of plants and their role in the natural environment.
Part B: Zoology
Introduction to Biology (2)
6.1 Describe the importance and scope of biology
6.2 Analyze biology and its relation with other sciences
Evolutionary Biology (15)
7.1 Explain different theories for origin of life.
7.2 State and explain evolution as the process of biological change over time with biological evidences and theories of evolution.
7.3 Describe and explain the evolution of modern man from anthropoid ancestor.
7.4 Investigate evolutionary processes, and analyze scientific evidence that supports the theory of evolution;
7.5 Demonstrate an understanding of the theory of evolution, the evidence that supports it, and some of the mechanisms by which it occurs.
Faunal Diversity (34)
8.1 Understand protista and classify Protozoa upto class with examples and characteristic features.
8.2 Explain the habits and habitat, structure, reproduction, life-cycle and economic importance of Paramecium caudatum, Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum.
8.3 Explain level of organization, body plan, body symmetry, body cavity and segmentation in animals.
8.4 Give the diagnostic features and classify different phyla (up to class) with examples.
8.5 Describe the morphology, different systems and physiological processes of earthworm and frog.
8.6 Investigate, through laboratory and/or field activities or through simulations, the principles of scientific classification, using appropriate sampling and classification techniques;
Biota and Environment (10)
9.1 Define and explain different types of adaptations in animals
9.2 Identify different types of animal behavior and explain reflex action, taxes, dominance and leadership.
9.3 State and explain migration in fish and birds
9.4 Analyze air, water and soil pollution, its causes, effects and find out the ways out to protect oneself and the environment from the adverse effects of these pollution
9.5 Analyze the pesticides & their effects on environment.
Conservation Biology (3)
10.1 State the concept and importance of biodiversity to maintain viable ecosystems and identify its causes of extinction and its effect for human beings.
10.2 Find out the ways of biodiversity conservation focusing on wildlife, national parks, conservation areas, biodiversity hotspots, wetland and Ramsar sites
10.3 Explain IUCN Red list categories and discuss endangered species in Nepal.
4. Scope and Sequence of Contents (Theory)

Grade 11
Part A: Botany
Unit: 1 - Biomolecules and Cell Biology
Biomolecules: Introduction and functions of: carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, minerals, enzymes and water.
Cell: Introduction of cell, concepts of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, detail structure of eukaryotic cells (composition, structure and functions of cell wall, cell membrane, mitochondria, plastids, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi bodies, lysosomes, ribosomes, nucleus, chromosomes, cilia, flagella and cell inclusions.
Cell division : Concept of cell cycle, types of cell division (amitosis, mitosis and meiosis) and significances
Unit: 2 - Floral Diversity
Introduction: Three domains of life, binomial nomenclature, five kingdom classification system (Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia); status of flora in Nepal and world representation
Fungi: General introduction and characteristic features of phycomycetes, ascomycetes, basidiomycetes and deuteromycetes; structure and Reproduction of Mucor and Yeast, introduction of Mushrooms, poisonous and non-poisonous mushrooms, economic importance of fungi.
Lichen: General introduction, characteristic features and economic importance of lichen
Algae: General introduction and characteristic feature of green, brown and red algae; structure and reproduction of Spirogyra. Economic importance of algae
Bryophyta: General introduction and characteristic features of liverworts, hornworts and moss; morphological structure and reproduction of Marchantia. Economic importance of bryophytes
Pteridophyta: General introduction and characteristic features of pteridophytes; morphological structure and reproduction of Dryopteris. Economic importance of pteridophytes
Gymnosperm: General introduction and characteristic features of Gymnosperms; morphology and reproduction of Pinus. Economic importance of gymnosperm
Angiosperm: Morphology (root, stem, leaves, inflorescences, flowers and fruit); Taxonomic study: Definition, taxonomic hierarchy, classification systems (artificial, natural and phylogenetic) of angiosperms, taxonomic description of the families – Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, and Liliaceae with economic importance
Unit: 3 - Introductory Microbiology
Monera: General introduction, structure of bacterial cell, mode of nutrition, bacterial growth; cyanobacteria (blue green algae).
Virus: General introduction, structure and importance of virus, bacteriophage
Impacts of biotechnology in the field of microbiology.
Unit: 4 - Ecology
Ecosystem ecology: Concept of ecology, biotic and abiotic factors, species interactions; concept of ecosystem, structural and functional aspects of pond and forest ecosystem, food chain, food web, trophic level, ecological pyramids, productivity, biogeochemical cycle - carbon and nitrogen cycles, concept of succession.
Ecological Adaptation: Concept of adaptation, hydrophytes and xerophytes.
Ecological Imbalances: Green house effects and climate change, depletion of ozone layer, acid rain and biological invasion.
Unit: 5 - Vegetation
Vegetation: Introduction, types of vegetation in Nepal, concept of In-situ
(protected areas) and Ex-situ (botanical garden, seed bank) conservation.
Natural environment-vegetation and human activities
Part B: Zoology
Unit: 6 - Introduction to Biology
Introduction to Biology: Scope and fields of biology. Relation with other science.
Unit: 7 - Evolutionary Biology
Life and its Origin: Oparin-Haldane theory, Miller and Urey's experiment.
Evidences of evolution: Morphological, Anatomical, Paleontological, Embryological and Biochemical.
Theories of evolution: Lamarckism, Darwinism & concept of Neo Darwinism.
Human evolution: Position of man in animal kingdom. Differences between new world monkeys & old world monkeys, apes & man. Evolution of modern man starting from anthropoid ancestor.
Unit: 8 - Faunal Diversity
Protista: Outline classification. Protozoa: diagnostic features and classification up to class with examples; Paramecium caudatum, Plasmodium vivax - habits and habitat, structure, reproduction, life-cycle and economic importance of P. falciparum.
Animalia: Level of organization, body plan, body symmetry, body cavity and segmentation in animals. Diagnostic features and classification of the following phyla (up to class) with examples:Porifera, Coelenterata (Cnidaria), Platyhelminthes, Aschelminthes (Nemathelminthes), Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca, Echinodermata and Chordata.
Earthworm (Pheretima posthuma): Habit and habitat, External features; Digestive system (alimentary canal & physiology of digestion), Excretory system (types of nephridia, structure and arrangement of septal nephridia), Nervous system (central & peripheral nervous system, working mechanism) & Reproductive systems (male & female reproductive organs), Copulation, Cocoon formation and Economic importance.
Frog (Rana tigrina): Habit and habitat, External features, Digestive system (alimentary canal, digestive glands & physiology of digestion), Blood vascular system (structure & working mechanism of heart), Respiratory system (respiratory organs & physiology of respiration) and Reproductive system (male & female reproductive organs).
Unit: 9 - Biota and Environment
Animal adaptation: Aquatic (Primary & Secondary), Terrestrial (Cursorial, Fossorial & Arboreal) and Volant adaptation.
Animal behavior: Reflex action, taxes, dominance and leadership. Fish and bird Migration.
Environmental Pollution: Sources, effects and control measures of air, water and soil pollution. Pesticides & their effects.
Unit: 10 - Conservation Biology
Conservation Biology: Concept of biodiversity, biodiversity conservation, national parks, wildlife reserves, conservation areas, biodiversity hotspots, wetland & Ramsar sites.
Wildlife-Importance, causes of extinction and conservation strategies. IUCN categories of threatened species- meaning of extinct, endangered, vulnerable, rare, and threatened species. Endangered species in Nepal.

5. Practical Portion (32 Teaching hours)

The practical work that students do during their course is aimed at providing them learning opportunities to accomplish competency of the curriculum as well as reinforcing their learning of the theoretical subject content. This part of the curriculum focuses more on skill development than knowledge building. Students must spend lots of time for working with chemical materials. Observations and investigations can enhance student learning. Project work may consist of activities designed to demonstrate the concepts and ideas through collecting, processing, analyzing and communicating data.

Students should learn to,
 collect and identify
 preserve
 dissect
 draw figure, chart, preparing models, slides etc
 handle the equipment, instruments and laboratory handling with experimentation
 draw conclusion

Students should perform at least 10 experiments, either listed below or designed by teacher, so that no more than three experiments come from the same unit and students should perform at least 5 experiments from botany and 5 experiments from zoology part of this curriculum.

a) Practical Activities for Grade 11

The following are the list of practical activities for Grade 11 in Biology 

Unit 1: Biomolecules and Cell Biology
1. Study of tissues and diversity in shapes and sizes of plant cells (e.g. palisade cells, guard cells, parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma, xylem, phloem,) through temporary/permanent slides.
2. Study of mitosis in onion root tips cells by preparing temporary slides and permanent slides.

Unit 2: Floral Diversity
3. Collect, identify different types of plants from your nearby locality and preserve them with appropriate method.
4. Collect, preserve and identify some available mushrooms. Distinguish poisonous and edible mushrooms.

5. Study and describe three locally available common flowering plants from each of the following families (Solanaceae, Fabaceae and Liliaceae) including dissection and display of floral whorls and anther and ovary to show number of chambers. Types of root (Tap and Adventitious); Stem (Herbaceous and woody); Leaf (arrangement, shape, venation, simple and compound).
6. Study and identification of different types of inflorescence.

Unit 3: Introductory Microbiology
7. Culture the given sample of soil and study the microorganisms present in it.

Unit 4: Ecology
8. Study the biotic and abiotic factors of a pond as an ecosystem.
9. Determine the population density of plants of given area by quadrate method.
10. Collect and study soil from at least two different sites and study them for texture, moisture content, pH and water holding capacity of soil. Correlate with the kinds of plants found in them.
11. Study of plant population density by quadrate method.

Unit 5: Vegetation
12. Study of the specimens and identification with reasons- Bacteria, Oscillatoria, Spirogyra, Rhizopus, mushroom, yeast, liverwort, moss, fern, pine, one monocotyledonous plant and one dicotyledonous plant and one lichen.


Unit 6: Introduction to Biology
13. Study parts of a compound microscope.

Unit 7: Evolutionary Biology
14. Study of the evidences of evolution through fossils (for example saligram).

Unit 8: Faunal Diversity
15. Study of specimens and identification with reasons- Amoeba, Hydra, Liverfluke, Ascaris, leech, earthworm, prawn, silkworm, honeybee, snail, starfish, shark, rohu, frog, lizard, pigeon and rabbit.
16. Dissect and study the alimentary canal of the earthworm, frog and rabbit.
Unit 9: Biota and Environment
17. To study the biotic and abiotic components of pond or any other ecosystems nearby you

Unit 10: Conservation Biology
18. . Find out the new strategies for conserving biodiversity in the context of Nepalese development.

b) Sample project work for grade 11 in Biology

1. Collect the sample of cryptogams (Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes) and study their characteristics.
2. Observe and compare the morphological adaptation of hydrophytes, xerophytes and xerophytes.
3. Prepare a report on local varieties and improved varieties of crops and vegetables in your area.
4. Visit the forest or vegetation types in your nearby area and prepare a report on it.
5. Prepare a report on the role of botanical garden in conservation of plants in Nepal
6. Survey any locality regarding any topics related to theory course of Biology (visit to zoological museum/zoo/protected areas/natural habits- forest/lake or river) and writing a report of it.

7. Prepare a report on causes and consequences of environmental pollution in your locality.
8. Observe different cultivation methods of Mushroom and prepare a report on it.
9. Look for resources like library, journals, web surfing, field observations etc and study present status and scope of Biotechnology in Nepal.

Note: The above are only the specimens of activities. In order to arouse creativity, the students must be encouraged to take up new activities (other than mentioned above) in consultation with the teacher concerned.

6. Learning Facilitation Process

Students should be facilitated to learn rather than just accumulation of information. Teacher plays vital role for delivering subject matters although others' role is also important. Student centered teaching-learning process is highly emphasized. Students are supposed to adopt multiple pathway
of learning, such as online search, field visit, library work, laboratory work, individual and group work, research work etc. with the support of teacher. Self-study by students is highly encouraged and learning should not be confined to the scope of curriculum. Teacher should keep in mind intra and inter-disciplinary approach to teaching and learning, as opposed to compartmentalization of knowledge. Supportive role of parents/guardians in creating conducive environment for promoting the spirit of inquiry and creativity in students' learning is anticipated.

During the delivery process of science teaching in grade 11 and 12, basically following three approaches will be adopted;

a) Conceptual/Theoretical Approach

Possible theoretical methods of delivery may include the following;
 lecture
 interaction
 question answer
 demonstrations
 ICT based instructions
 cooperative learning
 group discussions (satellite learning group, peer group, small and large group)
 debate
 seminar presentation
 Journal publishing
 daily assignment

b) Practical/Application/Experimental approach

Practical work is the integral part of the learning science. The process of lab based practical work
comprises as;
 familiarity with objective of practical work
 familiarity with materials, chemicals, apparatus
 familiarity with lab process (safety, working modality etc.)
 conduction of practical work (systematically following the given instruction)
 analysis, interpretation and drawing conclusion

c) Project work Approach

Project work is an integral part of the science learning. Students should be involved in project work to foster self-learning of students in the both theoretical and practical contents. Students will complete project work to have practical idea through learning by doing approach and able to connect the theory into the real world context. It is regarded as method/ process of learning rather than content itself. So use of project work method to facilitate any appropriate contents of this curriculum is highly encouraged. In this approach student will conduct at least one research work, or an innovative work under the guidance of teacher, using the knowledge and skills learnt. It could include any of the followings;

 Mini research
 Survey
 Model construction
 Paper based work
 study of ethno-science

General process of research work embraces the following steps;
a. Understanding the objective of the research
b. Planning and designing
c. Collecting information
d. Analysis and interpretation
e. Reporting /communicating (presentation, via visual aids, written report, graphical etc.)

General process of innovative work embraces the following steps;
a. Identification of innovative task (either assigned by teacher or proposed by student)
b. Planning
c. Performing the task
d. Presentation of the work
e. Record keeping of the work
Students are free to choose any topic listed in this curriculum or a topic suggested by teacher
provided that it is within the theoretical contents of the Curriculum. However, repetition of topic should be discouraged.

Learning process matrix

Knowledge and understanding
Scientific skills and process
Values, attitudes and application to daily life
a) Scientific phenomenon, facts, definition, principles, theory, concepts and new discoveries
a) Basic and integrated scientific process skills
a) Responsible
b) Scientific vocabulary, glossary and terminology
b) Investigation
b) Spending time for
c) Scientific tools, devises,
instruments apparatus
c) Creative thinking
d) Techniques of uses of
scientific instruments with
d) problem solving
e) Scientific and
technological applications
Basic Science Process Skills includes,

1. Observing: using senses to gather information about an object or event. It is description of what was actually perceived.
2. Measuring: comparing unknown physical quantity with known quantity (standard unit) of same type.
3. Inferring: formulating assumptions or possible explanations based upon observations.
4. Classifying: grouping or ordering objects or events into categories based upon characteristics or defined criteria.
5. Predicting: guessing the most likely outcome of a future event based upon a pattern of evidence.
6. Communicating: using words, symbols, or graphics to describe an object, action or event.

Integrated Science Process Skills includes,

1. Formulating hypotheses: determination of the proposed solutions or expected outcomes for experiments. These proposed solutions to a problem must be testable.
2. Identifying of variables: Identification of the changeable factors (independent and dependent variables) that can affect an experiment.
3. Defining variables operationally: explaining how to measure a variable in an experiment.
4. Describing relationships between variables: explaining relationships between variables in an experiment such as between the independent and dependent variables.
5. Designing investigations: designing an experiment by identifying materials and describing appropriate steps in a procedure to test a hypothesis.
6. Experimenting: carrying out an experiment by carefully following directions of the procedure so the results can be verified by repeating the procedure several times.
7. Acquiring data: collecting qualitative and quantitative data as observations and measurements.
8. Organizing data in tables and graphs: presenting collected data in tables and graphs.
9. Analyzing investigations and their data: interpreting data, identifying errors, evaluating the hypothesis, formulating conclusions, and recommending further testing where necessary.
10. Understanding cause and effect relationships: understanding what caused what to happen and why.
11. Formulating models: recognizing patterns in data and making comparisons to familiar objects or ideas.

7. Student Assessment

Evaluation is an integral part of learning process. Both formative and summative modes of evaluation are emphasized. Formative evaluation will be conducted so as to provide regular feedback for students, teachers and parents/guardians about how student learning is. Class tests, unit tests, oral question-answer, home assignment etc, are some ways of formative evaluation.

There will be separate evaluation of theoretical and practical learning. Summative evaluation embraces theoretical examination, practical examination and evaluation of research work or innovative work.

(a) Internal Evaluation

Out of 100 full marks Internal evaluation covers 25 marks. Internal evaluation consists of Practical work (16 marks), (b) Marks from trimester examinations (6 marks), and (c) Classroom participation (3 marks)

 Practical Activities

Practical works and project works should be based on list of activities mentioned in this curriculum or designed by teacher. Mark distribution for practical work and project work will be as follows:

Elaboration of Criteria
Laboratory experiment
Correctness of apparatus setup/preparation
Data Processing and Analysis
Conclusion (Value of constants or prediction with justification)
Handling of errors/precaution
Understanding of objective of the experiment
Skills of the handling of apparatus in use
Overall impression
Practical work records and attendance
Records (number and quality)
Project work
Reports (background, objective, methodology, finding, conclusion)

(i) Practical examination will be conducted in the presence of internal and external supervisors. Evaluation of laboratory experiment will focus both the product of work and skills competencies of student in using apparatus.
(ii) Project work assessment is the internal assessment of reports and presentation of their project works either individually or group basis. In case of group presentation, every member of the group should submit a short reflection on the presented report in their own language. Records of project works must be attested by external supervisor.

 Marks from trimester examinations
Total of 6 marks, 3 marks from each trimester.

 Classroom participation (3 marks)
Classroom participation includes attendance (1) and participation in learning (2).

(b) External Evaluation

Out of 100 marks theoretical evaluation covers 75 marks. The tool for external evaluation of theoretical learning will be a written examination. Questions for the external examination will be based on the specification grid developed by Curriculum Development Centre. Examination question paper will be developed using various levels of revised Bloom's taxonomy including remembering level, understanding level, application level and higher ability (such as analyzing, evaluating, creating).
View Class/Grade-11/XI Biology (Botany+Zoology) Curriculum 2076/2020.
DR Gurung
A Learner (अज्ञान जस्तो ठूलो शत्रु अरु केही छैन।) 🙏🙏
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